Changsha, China
Changsha, China

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Gao Y.,University of Sichuan | Chen G.,Fujian Provincial Hospital | Tian H.,University of Sichuan | Lin L.,Fujian Provincial Hospital | And 10 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Aims:The present study aimed to assess the prevalence of hypertension among Chinese adults.Methods:Data were obtained from sphygmomanometer measurements and a questionnaire administered to 46239 Chinese adults ≥20 years of age who participated in the 2007-2008 China National Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders Study. Hypertension was defined as blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg or use of antihypertensive medication.Results:A total of 26.6% of Chinese adults had hypertension, and a significantly greater number of men were hypertensive than women (29.2% vs 24.1%, p<0.001). The age-specific prevalence of hypertension was 13.0%, 36.7%, and 56.5% among persons aged 20 to 44 years (young people), 45 to 64 years (middle-aged people), and ≥65 years (elderly people), respectively. In economically developed regions, the prevalence of hypertension was significantly higher among rural residents than among urban residents (31.3% vs 29.2%, p = 0.001). Among women or individuals who lived in the northern region, the disparity in the prevalence of hypertension between urban and rural areas disappeared (women: 24.0% vs. 24.0%, p = 0.942; northern region: 31.6% vs. 31.2%, p = 0.505). Among hypertensive patients, 45.0% were aware of their condition, 36.2% were treated, and 11.1% were adequately controlled.Conclusions:The prevalence of hypertension in China is increasing. The trend of an increase in prevalence is striking in young people and rural populations. Hypertension awareness, treatment, and control are poor. Public health efforts for further improving awareness and enhancing effective control are urgently needed in China, especially in emerging populations. © 2013 Gao et al.


Yang Z.,China Japan Friendship Hospital | Xing X.,China Japan Friendship Hospital | Xiao J.,China Japan Friendship Hospital | Lu J.,Chinese People's Liberation Army | And 17 more authors.
Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology and Diabetes | Year: 2013

Aims: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the most common chronic diseases in China. This aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of CVDs and risk factors in Chinese impaired glucose regulation subjects. Methods: We used a multistage, stratified sampling method to select subjects from the general Chinese population aged 20 years and older. Subjects underwent an oral glucose tolerance test to identify normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and impaired glucose regulation including isolated impaired fasting glucose (i-IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (i-IGT), and combined IFG/IGT and diabetic mellitus (DM). A logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the association between glucose abnormalities and CVD events. Results: We identified that 34 293 subjects had NGT, 1 469 i-IFG, 4 571 i-IGT, 957 IFG/IGT and 4 949 DM. The age-sex standardized prevalence rate of cardiovascular disease was 1.06% (95% CI 0.87-1.28), 1.79% (95% CI 1.37-2.33) and 3.83% (95% CI 2.79-5.24) in NGT, impaired glucose regulation and DM, respectively. Among impaired glucose subjects, prevalence of defined CVD risk factors (smoking, overweight, obesity, hypertension and dyslipidemia) was 29.52% (95% CI: 27.8-31.21), 36.25% (95% CI: 34.29-38.26), 10.05% (95% CI: 8.86-11.37), 36.43% (95% CI: 34.53-38.36) and 69.96% (95% CI: 67.87-71.98), respectively. Compared to 1 risk factor, the odds ratios (ORs) of CVDs with 2, 3 or 4 risk factors were 1.94 (95% CI: 0.74-5.09), 2.76 (95% CI: 1.06-7.21) and 5.84 (95% CI: 1.68-20.26), respectively. Additionally, compared to i-IFGs, ORs of CVDs with i-IGT and IFG/IGT were 2.88 (95%CI 1.36-6.01) and 2.12 (95% CI 0.83-5.44), respectively. Conclusion: The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors was high in the Chinese impaired glucose regulation population. The postprandial hyperglycemia is more associated with CVD than isolated fasting hyperglycemia. © J. A. Barth Verlag in Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart . New York ISSN 0947-7349.


Yang W.,China Japan Friendship Hospital | Lu J.,Chinese People's Liberation Army | Weng J.,Sun Yat Sen University | Jia W.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | And 16 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2010

BACKGROUND: Because of the rapid change in lifestyle in China, there is concern that diabetes may become epidemic. We conducted a national study from June 2007 through May 2008 to estimate the prevalence of diabetes among Chinese adults. METHODS: A nationally representative sample of 46,239 adults, 20 years of age or older, from 14 provinces and municipalities participated in the study. After an overnight fast, participants underwent an oral glucose-tolerance test, and fasting and 2-hour glucose levels were measured to identify undiagnosed diabetes and prediabetes (i.e., impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance). Previously diagnosed diabetes was determined on the basis of self-report. RESULTS: The age-standardized prevalences of total diabetes (which included both previously diagnosed diabetes and previously undiagnosed diabetes) and prediabetes were 9.7% (10.6% among men and 8.8% among women) and 15.5% (16.1% among men and 14.9% among women), respectively, accounting for 92.4 million adults with diabetes (50.2 million men and 42.2 million women) and 148.2 million adults with prediabetes (76.1 million men and 72.1 million women). The prevalence of diabetes increased with increasing age (3.2%, 11.5%, and 20.4% among persons who were 20 to 39, 40 to 59, and ≥60 years of age, respectively) and with increasing weight (4.5%, 7.6%, 12.8%, and 18.5% among persons with a body-mass index [the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters] of <18.5, 18.5 to 24.9, 25.0 to 29.9, and ≥30.0, respectively). The prevalence of diabetes was higher among urban residents than among rural residents (11.4% vs. 8.2%). The prevalence of isolated impaired glucose tolerance was higher than that of isolated impaired fasting glucose (11.0% vs. 3.2% among men and 10.9% vs. 2.2% among women). CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that diabetes has become a major public health problem in China and that strategies aimed at the prevention and treatment of diabetes are needed. Copyright © 2010 Massachusetts Medical Society. All rights reserved.


Yang W.,Chinese Japanese Friendship Hospital | Zhao W.,Chinese Japanese Friendship Hospital | Zhao W.,Peking Union Medical College | Xiao J.,Chinese Japanese Friendship Hospital | And 18 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Background: The Diabetes Impact Study followed up a large national population-based screening study to estimate the use of and expenditures for medical care caused by diabetes in China and to ascertain the use and cost of essential basic medicines and care. Methods: In 2009-10, the study team interviewed 1482 adults with diabetes and 1553 adults with glucose tolerance in the normal range from population-based random samples at 12 sites in China. The response rate was 67%. Findings: After adjusting for age, sex, and urban/rural location, people with diabetes received 1.93 times more days of inpatient treatment, 2.40 times more outpatient visits, and 3.35 times more medications than people with normal glucose tolerance (all p<0.05). Adjusted expenditures for medical care were 3.38 times higher among people with diabetes than among people with normal glucose tolerance (p<0.01, unadjusted 3.97). Persons who were diagnosed with ≥10 years prior to the survey paid 3.75 times as much for medical care as those with ≤5 years of diagnosed diabetes. Among persons with diabetes, 45.2% took medication to control blood sugar, 21.1% took an antihypertensive medicine, 22.4% took daily aspirin, and 1.8% took a statin. Over the three months before the interview, 46.1% of persons with diabetes recalled seeing a doctor, 48.9% recalled a blood pressure measurement, and 54.5% recalled a blood sugar test. Over the year preceding the interview, 32.1% recalled a retinal screening and 17.9% recalled a foot examination. Conclusions: In China, health care use and costs were dramatically higher for people with diabetes than for people with normal glucose tolerance and, in relative terms, much higher than in industrialized countries. Low-cost generic medicines that would reduce diabetes expenditures were not fully used.


Hou X.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Lu J.,Chinese People's Liberation Army | Weng J.,Sun Yat Sen University | Ji L.,Peking University | And 16 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background: We updated the prevalence of obesity and evaluated the clinical utility of separate and combined waist circumference (WC) or body mass index (BMI) category increments in identifying cardiometabolic disorder (CMD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in Chinese adults. Methods and Findings: 46,024 participants aged ≥20 years, a nationally representative sample surveyed in 2007-2008, were included in this analysis. Taking the cutoffs recommended by the Chinese Joint Committee for Developing Chinese Guidelines (JCDCG) and the Working Group on Obesity in China (WGOC) into account, the participants were divided into four WC and four BMI groups in 0.5-SD increments around the mean, and 16 cross-tabulated combination groups of WC and BMI. 27.1%, 31.4%, and 12.2% of Chinese adults are centrally obese, overweight, or obese according to JCDCG and WGOC criteria. After adjustment for confounders, after a 1-SD increment, WC is associated with a 1.7-fold or 2.2-fold greater risk of having DM or DM plus dyslipidemia than BMI, while BMI was associated with a 2.3-fold or 1.7-fold higher hypertension or hypertension plus dyslipidemia risk than WC. The combination of WC and BMI categories had stronger association with CMD risk, i.e., the adjusted ORs (95% CI) of having DM, hypertension, and dyslipidemia for the combined and separate highest WC and BMI categories were 2.19 (1.96-2.44) vs 1.88 (1.67-2.12) and 1.12 (0.99-1.26); 5.70 (5.24-6.19) vs 1.51 (1.39-1.65) and 1.69 (1.57-1.82); and 3.73 (3.42-4.07) vs 2.16 (1.98-2.35) and 1.33 (1.25-1.40), respectively. The combination of WC and BMI categories was more likely to identify individuals with lower WC and lower BMI at CVD risk, even after the effects of CMD were controlled (all P<0.05). Conclusion: Central obesity, overweight, and obesity are epidemic in Chinese adults. The combination of WC and BMI measures is superior to the separate indices in identifying CMD and CVD risk. © 2013 Hou et al.


Chen F.,Chinese PLA General Hospital | Yang W.,China Japan Friendship Hospital | Weng J.,Sun Yat Sen University | Jia W.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | And 16 more authors.
Journal of Diabetes Investigation | Year: 2014

Aims/Introduction: To investigate the prevalence and associated risk factors of microalbuminuria, and to explore the relationship between albuminuria and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Materials and Methods: A nationally representative sample of 38,203 Chinese participants was categorized by different levels of urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR; 0 -10 mg/g, 10 -20 mg/g, 20 -30 mg/g, 30 -300 mg/g). The prevalence of albuminuria was compared by using a single urinary ACR cut-off point and by sex-specific ACR cut-off points. Factors associated with the presence of albuminuria, and the relationship between albuminuria and CVD were analyzed by logistic regression. Results: Prevalence of albuminuria as measured by a single ACR cut-point was significantly lower for men compared with women (13.9% vs 19.1% in the normal glucose tolerance group; 20.8% vs 26.8% in the impaired glucose tolerance group, P < 0.01). The prevalence of albuminuria, as measured by sex-specific ACR cut-points, was higher for men than women (31.4% vs 29.6% in the normal glucose tolerance group; 42.2% vs 39.3% in the impaired glucose tolerance group, P < 0.01). The independent risk factors for the presence of albuminuria were aging, female sex, hypertension, hyperglycemia, obesity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. The subdivided normal ACR group did not show a linear or statistically significant relationship with CVD after adjusting for conventional CVD risk factors (P > 0.05). Conclusions: The prevalence of albuminuria was high in the general Chinese population. Aging, female sex, hypertension, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, obesity and metabolic syndrome were all independent risk factors for albuminuria. The causal relationship between ACR and CVD might require further follow-up investigation. © 2013 The Authors.


Yang W.,China Japan Friendship Hospital | Xiao J.,China Japan Friendship Hospital | Yang Z.,China Japan Friendship Hospital | Ji L.,Peking University | And 17 more authors.
Circulation | Year: 2012

Background-Because of rapid change in lifestyle risk factors, cardiovascular disease has become the leading cause of death in China. We sought to estimate the national levels of serum lipids and lipoproteins among the Chinese adult population. Methods and Results-We conducted a cross-sectional study in a nationally representative sample of 46 239 adults aged ≥20 years. Fasting serum total, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides were measured by standard methods. The age-standardized estimates of total, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides were 4.72 (95% confidence interval, 4.70-4.73), 1.30 (1.29 -1.30), 2.68 (2.67-2.70), and 1.57 (1.55-1.58) mmol/L, respectively, in the Chinese adult population. In addition, 22.5% (21.8-23.3%) or 220.4 million (212.1-228.8) Chinese adults had borderline high total cholesterol (5.18-6.21 mmol/L), and 9.0% (8.5-9.5%) or 88.1 million (83.4 -92.8) had high total cholesterol (≥6.22 mmol/L). The population estimates for borderline high (3.37- 4.13 mmol/L), high (4.14-4.91 mmol/L), and very high (≥4.92 mmol/L) low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were 13.9% (13.3-14.5%) or 133.5 million (127.0 -140.1), 3.5% (3.3-3.8%) or 33.8 million (31.2-36.5), and 3.0% (2.8-3.3%) or 29.0 million (26.3-31.8) persons, respectively. In addition, 22.3% (21.6-23.1%) or 214.9 million (207.0 -222.8) persons had low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (<1.04 mmol/L). The awareness, treatment, and control of borderline high or high total cholesterol were 11.0%, 5.1%, and 2.8%, respectively, in the Chinese adult population. Conclusions-Serum total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were high and increasing in the Chinese population. Without effective intervention, atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases may soar in the near future in China. © 2012 American Heart Association, Inc.


PubMed | Xiangya Second Hospital, Henan Province Peoples Hospital, Shanghai JiaoTong University, Shandong University and 12 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015

To investigate the association between different family history risk categories and prevalence of diabetes in the Chinese population.The family history of diabetes was obtained from each subject, and an oral glucose tolerance test was performed for measuring the fasting and postload glucose and insulin levels based on a national representative cross-sectional survey of 46,239 individuals (age 20 years) in the 2007-2008 China National Diabetes and Metabolism Disorders Study. The family history risk categories of diabetes were high, moderate, and average (FH2 and FH1: at least two generations and one generation of first-degree relatives with diabetes, respectively; FH0: no first-degree relatives with diabetes).The age- and gender-adjusted prevalence rates of diabetes were 32.7% (95% confidence interval (CI): 26.4-39.7%) in FH2, 20.1% (95% CI: 18.2-22.1%) in FH1, and 8.4% (95% CI: 7.9-8.9%) in FH0 (P < 0.0001). The calculated homeostatic model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), Matsuda insulin sensitivity index (ISI), and insulinogenic index (I30/G30) values showed significant trending changes among the three risk categories, with the most negative effects in FH2. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the odds ratios of having diabetes were 6.16 (95% CI: 4.46-8.50) and 2.86 (95% CI: 2.41-3.39) times higher in FH2 and FH1, respectively, than in FH0 after adjustment for classical risk factors for diabetes.Family history risk categories of diabetes have a significant, independent, and graded association with the prevalence of this disease in the Chinese population.


Yu F.,Central South University | Liu H.,Central South University | Li K.-H.,Central South University | Lei G.-H.,Central South University | And 3 more authors.
Orthopedics | Year: 2011

The goal of this study was to evaluate the array of causative organisms for septic arthritis in children and their antibiotic resistance patterns over a 20-year period at a single medical center. The medical records of children younger than 16 years with septic arthritis admitted to a hospital in China from 1989 to 2008 were retrospectively reviewed. A total of 158 cases of septic arthritis were studied, 70 from 1989 to 1998 and 88 from 1999 to 2008. Between the first and second decades, occurrence of serious illnesses decreased significantly from 44.3% to 28.4% (P<.04). The positive percentage was only 55.6% in the first decade and 44.82% in the second decade. The causative organisms of major significance between the 2 decades changed little, except methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) increasing significantly. Staphylococci remained the major causative organisms for joint infection. The percentage of Staphylococcus aureus resistance to various antibiotics increased: 85% to 100% for penicillin, 58.8% to 75% for erythromycin, 0% to 31.3% for cefazolin, and 15% to 29.4% for multi-resistance. In the second decade, 4 MRSA stains were multi-resistant. However, gentamincin resistance remained at the same level. Antibiotic resistance of coagulase-negative staphylococci and gram-negative bacilli changed little. The incidences of osteomyelitis and joint dislocation decreased significantly, from 15.7% to 6% and 28.6% to 14.8%, respectively (P<.04). The distribution of causative organisms of septic arthritis in young patients changed slightly during the 20-year period, while antibiotic resistance of the major causative organisms increased and the incidences of serious illness-osteomyelitis and joint dislocation - decreased significantly.


Wu Q.,Xiangya Second Hospital | Tan Z.,Xiangya Second Hospital | Liu H.,Xiangya Second Hospital | Gao L.,Xiangya Second Hospital | And 6 more authors.
International Journal of Biological Macromolecules | Year: 2010

Age is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease including heart disease. The aim of this study was to investigate chemical composition and structure of Auricularia auricula polysaccharides and its effect in improving heart function by examining blood and heart antioxidant enzyme activity and heart function parameters, e.g. left ventricle ejection fraction (EF), Left ventricular short axis fractional shortening (FS) in aged mice after giving the polysaccharides 40 days. GC-MS showed that monosaccharide composition of A. auricula polysaccharides was glucose (72%), mannose (8%), xylose (10%) and fucose (10%). FT-IR spectra obtained from A. auricula polysaccharides had peaks at about 3500 cm-1 and 500 cm-1 in the carbohydrate region. These are characteristic of polysaccharides. In all spectra, the absorption between 1500 cm-1 and 670 cm-1 may be attributed to bands of C-H, C-O and O-H in the polysaccharides. Pharmacological experiment indicated that aged mice showed a significant (P < 0.01) decline in immune, antioxidant activities, EF and FS values. All abnormal immune, antioxidant enzymes, EF and FS parameters tested in aged mice were greatly (P < 0.01) ameliorated following A. auricula polysaccharides administration. In conclusion, A. auricula polysaccharides treatment could improve heart function through its strong antioxidant activity. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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