Awan S.N.,Second Street
Folia Phoniatrica et Logopaedica | Year: 2011
Objective: This study investigated the capability of the Dysphonia Severity Index (DSI) and its component measures to reveal differences in vocal capability between groups of young adult female smokers and nonsmokers. Patients and Methods: The subjects were 30 female nonsmokers and 30 female smokers between the ages of 18 and 24 years. Data on the DSI components (maximum phonation time, MPT; highest phonational frequency, F0 high; lowest intensity, Ilow, and jitter) were collected, followed by calculation of the DSI. Results: Significant differences between groups were observed on the DSI, with reduced DSI scores in smokers primarily due to reductions in F 0 high and increases in Ilow. A strong partial correlation between MPT and the DSI in smokers may be indicative of reductions in respiratory support and/or phonatory control. Conclusions: Significant group differences in the DSI and component measures may be indicative of early changes in vocal function secondary to smoking. Reductions in frequency and dynamic range are consistent with the possibility of increased vocal fold mass in smokers. The results indicate that significant differences in the DSI between groups may be observed in subjects with perceptually normal vocal quality and with normal levels of vocal perturbation. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG.
Chattopadhyay D.,Second Street
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2014
Renewable power generation development, most notably for wind and solar, has taken off at a rapid pace in India especially in the last 4 years. While these developments have many positive aspects, a rapid shift in balance of baseload and intermittent generation must be assessed carefully to ensure the share of renewable power generation increases without compromising system security and economics. Seasonal and spatial variability of wind, and to a lesser extent that of solar, can render these resources to have low availability for a significant part of the year leading to an increase in unserved energy, i.e., deteriorate system reliability. The intermittency of generation also impacts on inter-state power flows and lead to higher congestion in the grid. Climate model results provide a rich set of information on the nature of solar/wind variability that can be embedded in an electricity market simulation tool to assess these impacts on prices, generation dispatch and power flows. We have developed a modelling analysis for the Indian national electricity market informed by CSIRO climate model results. We have assessed the added costs arising from intermittency to put in perspective the true costs and benefits of renewable power. We have focused on the near-term developments in 2017 to show how some of the high renewable growth scenarios included in the Indian National Electricity Plan may imply significant pressure on inter-state/region transfer capability, and lead to a significant worsening of system reliability. The outcome of our modelling analysis suggests that a more orderly and balanced development of renewable and conventional power generation capacity is needed with a stronger focus on system economics and security. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Papapetrou P.D.,Second Street
Hormones | Year: 2010
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between circulating 25(OH)D, 1,25(OH)2D, and 24,25(OH)2D in pregnancy at term, and to test the hypothesis that serum 25(OH)D and 24,25(OH)2D are repressed by high serum 1,25(OH)2D levels. DEsIGN: twenty studies in pregnant women at term and 14 studies in young non-pregnant women were selected from the electronic literature. From these studies the mean serum concentrations of 25(OH)D, 1,25(OH)2D, and 24,25(OH)2D from 26 groups of pregnant and 14 groups of non-pregnant young women were analyzed. the grand mean (mean of the means) of serum 25(OH)D, serum 1,25(OH)2D, and of the ratio 1,25(OH)2D/25(OH)D were compared between pregnant and non-pregnant women. Also, the means of serum 1,25(OH)2D were regressed on the means of serum 25(OH)D. the relationship between 25(OH)D and 24,25(OH)2D was also evaluated using similar methods. RESULTS: The grand mean of 1,25(OH)2D was two-fold higher, and the grand mean of the ratio 1,25(OH)2D/25(OH)D was 2.5-fold higher in pregnant than in non-pregnant women with comparable serum 25(OH)D. Regression showed no significant relationship between 1,25(OH)2D and 25(OH)D in pregnant and non-pregnant women. the ratio 24,25(OH)2D/25(OH)D was not different in pregnant and non-pregnanat women. regression showed significant relationship between 24,25(OH)2D and 25(OH)D in both pregnant and nonpregnant women. CONCLUSIONS: serum 1,25(OH)2D is not, whereas serum 24,25(OH)2D is significantly related to serum 25(OH)D in pregnant women. serum 24,25(OH)2D seems not to be repressed by the high 1,25(OH)2D levels during pregnancy, whereas a similar conclusion for 25(OH)D is less clear.
Hustvedt S.,Second Street
Neurophysiologie Clinique | Year: 2014
The conversion phenomena of hysteria were the subject of intense study in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, after which work on the subject went into decline. The patients are still with us, however, and I cite an epidemic of hysterical blindness among Cambodian refugees living in the U.S. as a poignant example. Since the advent of brain imaging technology, conversion hysteria has been receiving renewed attention. In this paper, I suggest that examining the ideas about hysteria from the past, especially those of Charcot and Janet are fertile areas of study, including the illness and its relation to hypnosis, shock, suggestion, and dissociation theory. I also address the role of the imaginary and the imagination in the illness and critique the implicit dualist model used in most brain imaging studies that distorts the integration of psyche and soma. I summon Merleau-Ponty's body-subject, infant research on intersubjectivity, and Vittorio Gallese's "embodied simulation" as possible windows onto the problem of hysterical conversion, and finally I suggest that along with imaging studies, more dynamic narrative strategies should be used if we hope to understand the metamorphoses, mimesis, and powerful emotions that all play a part in this mysterious disease. © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS.
Osypuk T.L.,Second Street
Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology | Year: 2015
The impact of housing and neighborhood context on children’s mental health, as addressed by Flouri et al. (Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol, 2014), is an important, understudied topic in social epidemiology. Although the vast majority of this body of research has been descriptive, generating translational research is essential. This article offers guidance on interpreting evidence from observational studies for translation into policy, related to three policy-relevant elements of housing: receipt of affordable housing subsidies, the target population to which results generalize, and operationalization and modeling of neighborhood context. Policy translation is imperative for understanding which levers outside the health sector can be manipulated to change fundamental causes of mental health related to housing and neighborhood. Shifting from policy relevance to policy translation may be challenging, especially for understanding social causation in observational studies, but it is a necessary shift for improving population health. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.