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Cao X.,Chinese Institute of Basic Medical Sciences | Cao X.,Second Military Medical University
Nature Reviews Immunology | Year: 2016

In the initiation of innate immune responses against pathogens, pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) have an essential role in recognizing specific components of microorganisms and triggering responses that eliminate the invading microorganisms. However, inappropriate activation of PRRs can lead to prolonged inflammation and even to autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Thus, PRR-triggered responses are regulated through the degradation or translocation of the innate receptors themselves and through the involvement of intracellular regulators or amplifiers. In addition, a complex interplay between PRRs and/or other immune pathways finely tunes the outcome of host immune defence responses. In this Review, I describe many of the numerous distinct mechanisms for the self-regulation and cross-regulation of innate immune receptor signalling. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. Source

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the neurotrophic factor Artemin on neuroplasticity and perineural invasion of pancreatic adenocarcinoma.METHODS: Artemin expressions were detected in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma tissues by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Artemin overexpression and RNA interference in the pancreatic cancer cell lines were performed to evaluate the effects of Artemin on cell proliferation, invasion, and neurotrophic activity in vitro and in nude orthotopic transplantation tumor models.RESULTS: Artemin expression in pancreatic cancer tissues was related to the incidence of lymphatic metastasis and perineural invasion as well as the mean density and total area of nerve fibers. Overexpression of Artemin in pancreatic cancer cell lines improved colony formation, cell migration, matrigel invasion, and neurotrophic activity in vitro. This overexpression also increased the volume of nude orthotopic transplantation tumors; promoted cancer cell invasion of the peripheral organs, nerves, vessels, and lymph nodes; and stimulated the proliferation of peritumoral nerve fibers. Artemin depletion by RNA interference had an inhibitory effect mentioned previously.CONCLUSIONS: Artemin could promote invasiveness and neurotrophic function of pancreatic adenocarcinoma in vivo and in vitro. Therefore, Artemin could be used as a new therapeutic target of pancreatic carcinoma.This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License, where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially. © 2014 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

Liu Q.,Second Military Medical University
International Immunopharmacology | Year: 2011

Triptolide, a diterpene triepoxide, is a major active component of extracts derived from the medicinal plant Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F (TWHF). Triptolide has multiple pharmacological activities including anti-inflammatory, immune modulation, antiproliferative and ctyproapoptotic activity. So, triptolide has been widely used to treat inflammatory diseases, autoimmune diseases, organ transplantation and even tumors. Triptolide cannot only induce tumor cell apoptosis directly, but can also enhance apoptosis induced by cytotoxic agents such as TNF-α, TRAIL and chemotherapeutic agents regardless of p53 phenotype by inhibiting NFκB activation. Recently, the cellular targets of triptolide, such as MKP-1, HSP, 5-Lox, RNA polymerase and histone methyl-transferases had been demonstrated. However, the clinical use of triptolide is often limited by its severe toxicity and water-insolubility. New water-soluble triptolide derivatives have been designed and synthesized, such as PG490-88 or F60008, which have been shown to be safe and potent antitumor agent. Importantly, PG490-88 has been approved entry into Phase I clinical trial for treatment of prostate cancer in USA. This review will focus on these breakthrough findings of triptolide and its implications. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source

Second Military Medical University | Date: 2011-05-17

An indenoquinolone compounds of Formula (A) is disclosed, wherein the definition of each group is described in the description. These compounds may specifically inhibit topoisomerase I, and they have good activities against many kinds of human tumor cells, such as lung cancer, colon cancer, breast cancer, liver cancer and the like. They can be used in the manufacture of antitumor drugs. The method for preparing the compound of formula (A), and pharmaceutical compositions containing such compounds and the use in the manufacture of antitumor drugs are also disclosed.

Liu J.,Second Military Medical University | Cao X.,Second Military Medical University | Cao X.,Chinese Institute of Basic Medical Sciences
Journal of Autoimmunity | Year: 2015

Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells (APC) with significant phenotypic heterogeneity and functional plasticity. DCs play crucial roles in initiating effective adaptive immune responses for elimination of invading pathogens and also in inducing immune tolerance toward harmless components to maintain immune homeostasis. The regulatory capacity of DCs depends on their immature state and distinct subsets, yet not restricted to the immature state and one specialized subset. The tolerogenicity of DC is controlled by a complex network of environmental signals and cellular intrinsic mechanisms. Regulatory DCs play an important role in the maintenance of immunological tolerance via the induction of T cell unresponsiveness or apoptosis, and generation of regulatory T cells. DCs play essential roles in driving autoimmunity via promoting the activation of effector T cells such as T helper 1 and T helper 17 cells, and/or suppressing the generation of regulatory T cells. Besides, a breakdown of DCs-mediated tolerance due to abnormal environmental signals or breakdown of intrinsic regulatory mechanisms is closely linked with the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. Novel immunotherapy taking advantage of the tolerogenic potential of regulatory DCs is being developed for treatment of autoimmune diseases. In this review, we will describe the current understanding on the generation of regulatory DC and the role of regulatory DCs in promoting tolerogenic immune responses and suppressing autoimmune responses. The emerging roles of DCs dysfunction in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases and the potential application of regulatory DCs in the treatment of autoimmune diseases will also be discussed. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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