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Navalmoral de la Mata, Spain

Gaspar M.J.,University of Tras os Montes e Alto Douro | Gaspar M.J.,University of Lisbon | Velasco T.,Seccion Forestal | Feito I.,Seccion Forestal | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Understanding the survival capacity of forest trees to periods of severe water stress could improve knowledge of the adaptive potential of different species under future climatic scenarios. In long lived organisms, like forest trees, the combination of induced osmotic stress treatments and field testing can elucidate the role of drought tolerance during the early stages of establishment, the most critical in the life of the species. We performed a Polyethylene glycolosmotic induced stress experiment and evaluated two common garden experiments (xeric and mesic sites) to test for survival and growth of a wide range clonal collection of Maritime pine. This study demonstrates the importance of additive vs non additive effects for drought tolerance traits in Pinus pinaster, and shows differences in parameters determining the adaptive trajectories of populations and family and clones within populations. The results show that osmotic adjustment plays an important role in population variation, while biomass allocation and hydric content greatly influence survival at population level. Survival in the induced osmotic stress experiment presented significant correlations with survival in the xeric site, and height growth at the mesic site, at population level, indicating constraints of adaptation for those traits, while at the within population level no significant correlation existed. These results demonstrate that population differentiation and within population genetic variation for drought tolerance follow different patterns.

Majada J.,Seccion Forestal | Martinez-Alonso C.,Seccion Forestal | Feito I.,Seccion Forestal | Kidelman A.,Seccion Forestal | And 2 more authors.
New Forests | Year: 2011

Pinus pinaster Ait. is one of the main forest tree species planted in Spain, Portugal and France. Due to its high economic relevance, there is considerable interest in developing techniques for vegetative breeding aimed at mass propagation. In this study we present a mini-propagation protocol in order to define an efficient method to propagate families or clones of P. pinaster. We carried out three experiments using mini-cuttings of 3-5 cm in length with the aim of evaluating the effects of temperature (4°C vs. 25°C), plant growth regulator (IBA) and shoot age on rooting ability. Percentage of rooted cuttings and morphological root variables were recorded. The percentage of rooted cuttings per treatment ranged from 68 to 97%. Treatment with IBA significantly influenced the rooting process at 25°C but not at 4°C. The number of apexes, length, area and volume of roots were all positively affected by temperature treatment. Shoot age also had a positive effect on rooting capacity of cuttings, with the cuttings from the youngest shoots (70 days after pruning) having higher rooting percentages, ranging from 84.7 to 98.3%. The use of juvenile material, good environmental conditions and IBA all benefited the rooting of clonal material, resulting in high rooting capacity. This study presents an innovative propagation protocol for P. pinaster that can be used as a tool in breeding programs. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

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