Seccion Entomologia

Santiago, Chile

Seccion Entomologia

Santiago, Chile
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Fukushima C.S.,University of Sao Paulo | Perez-Miles F.,Seccion Entomologia | Bertani R.,University of Sao Paulo
Journal of Arachnology | Year: 2011

The taxonomic status of four species of Avicularia Lamarck 1818 described from Uruguay: Avicularia anthracina (C.L. Koch 1842), Avicularia alticeps (Keyserling 1878), Avicularia parva (Keyserling 1878) and Avicularia tigrina (Pocock 1903) is discussed. The holotypes and/or original descriptions of these species were examined, and two taxonomic synonymies are needed, which are presented herein. Avicularia anthracina is transferred to Grammostola, resulting in Grammostola anthracina (C.L. Koch 1842) new combination and is considered a senior synonym of Grammostola mollicoma Ausserer 1875 new synonymy. Likewise, Avicularia parva is transferred to Catumiri Guadanucci 2004, where it is placed in the synonymy of Catumiri uruguayense Guadanucci 2004 new synonymy. Avicularia tigrina and Avicularia alticeps, originally described in the genera Ischnocolus Ausserer 1875 and Pterinopelma Pocock 1901, respectively, are herein considered nomina dubia since their types are presumed lost. © 2011 The American Arachnological Society.

Mourglia V.,UNDECIMAR | Gonzalez-Vainer P.,Seccion Entomologia | Defeo O.,UNDECIMAR | Defeo O.,Centro Universitario Of La Region Este
Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science | Year: 2015

Most studies of sandy beach macrofauna have been restricted to semiterrestrial species and do not include insects when providing species richness and abundance estimates. Particularly, spatio-temporal patterns of community structure of the entomofauna inhabiting these ecosystems have been scarcely documented. This study assessed spatio-temporal distributional patterns of the night active entomofauna on a beach-dune system of Uruguay, including variations in species richness, abundance and diversity, and their relationship with environmental factors. A deconstructive taxonomic analysis was also performed, considering richness and abundance patterns separately for the most abundant insect Orders (Hymenoptera and Coleoptera) to better understand the factors which drive their patterns. We found clear temporal and across-shore patterns in the insect community inhabiting a land-ocean interface, which matched spatiotemporal variations in the environment. Abundance and species richness were highest in spring and summer, concurrently with high temperatures and low values of sediment moisture and compaction. Multivariate ordinations showed two well-defined species groups, which separated summer, autumn and spring samples from winter ones. Generalized Linear Models allowed us to describe a clear segregation in space of the most important orders of the insect community, with specific preferences for the terrestrial (Hymenoptera) and beach (Coleoptera) fringes. Hymenoptera preferred the dune zone, characterized by high elevation and low sand moisture and compaction levels, whereas Coleoptera preferred gentle slopes and fine and humid sands of the beach. Our results suggest that beach and dune ecosystems operate as two separate components in regard to their physical and biological features. The high values of species richness and abundance of insects reveal that this group has a more significant ecological role than that originally considered so far in sandy beach ecology. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Buffet C.R.,Seccion Entomologia | Viera C.,Institute Investigaciones Biologicas Clemente Estable
Journal of Arachnology | Year: 2016

Detailed descriptions of sperm induction are rare in the literature. Anelosimus vierae Agnarsson, 2012 (Theridiidae) is a Uruguayan subsocial spider that lives in communal nests. This paper describes the sperm induction of this species under laboratory conditions. We collected spiders in Montevideo, Uruguay, from different trees and placed them in thirty male and female pairs in Petri dishes to observe the occurrence of sperm induction. We witnessed twenty-two males performing sperm induction after copulation. Sperm web characteristics and description of the male's behavior during sperm induction are described. © The American Arachnological Society.

Miglio L.T.,Laboratorio Of Aracnologia | Bonaldo A.B.,Laboratorio Of Aracnologia | Perez-Miles F.,Seccion Entomologia
Iheringia - Serie Zoologia | Year: 2013

Munduruku gen. nov. is proposed for the type species Munduruku bicoloratum sp. nov., from Juruti and Santarém, Pará, Brazil. The main diagnostic character of Munduruku gen. nov. is the presence of a subapical, lanceolate keel on the male palpal bulb, which is unique among the basal taxa of Theraphosinae with type III-IV urticating setae. The female spermathecae consist of two spheroid receptacles with funnel-shaped necks, each of which bears a sclerotized area. In both sexes, the abdomen is remarkably patterned, an uncommon feature in adults of New World theraphosids. Both the bulbus lanceolate keel and the abdominal color pattern are hypothesized as synapomorphies of the genus.

Bentancur-Viglione M.G.,Seccion Entomologia
SHILAP Revista de lepidopterologia | Year: 2010

A list of 23 genera and 47 species of Lepidoptera from the three subfamilies of Sphingidae registered from Uruguay is included. A list of species cited in the literature for the country is given, as well as those deposited in the entomological collections of Uruguay, and data from recent surveys conducted since publication of the latest catalogue for Uruguay (BIEZANCO, 1978).

Ferretti N.,CONICET | Gonzalez A.,CONICET | Perez-Miles F.,Seccion Entomologia
Journal of Insect Conservation | Year: 2014

Conservation biogeography involves the application of biogeographical principles and methods to conservation issues. The identification of areas of endemism is important for both historical biogeography and conservation. Mygalomorphs spiders have poor vagility, limited dispersal mechanisms and sedentary habits. In this study we use a panbiogeographical approach (through track analysis) and the optimality criterion (NDM) to analyze the distributional patterns in order to identify areas of endemism and to prioritize areas for conservation in Argentina. We identified seven generalized tracks and four biogeographical nodes. The analysis of the 2° matrix examined by NDM allowed the identification of eight areas of endemism; from the analysis of the 1.5° matrix, NDM resulted in three areas of endemism; and the analysis of the 1° and 0.5° matrices identified one area of endemism each. The more relevant areas identified in this study were located at the Atlantic Forest, Pampa, Monte and Chaco. Other identified areas were Yungas and the hilly systems of Ventania and Tandilia (southern Pampa). We suggest that these results can indicate where to prioritize investment in creating new protected areas, in order to preserve the processes that generate the biogeographic patterns exhibited by this biota. © 2014, Springer International Publishing Switzerland.

Perez-Miles F.,Seccion Entomologia | Ortiz-Villatoro D.,Seccion Entomologia
Journal of Experimental Biology | Year: 2012

Theraphosid tarantulas, like all other spiders, secrete silk from spigots on the abdominal spinnerets. A few years ago, it was proposed that the large tarantula Aphonopelma seemanni could extrude silk from specialized spigots on the tarsi to help adhesion to vertical surfaces. This suggestion was later questioned because silk was not observed after the spinnerets had been sealed. Recently, experiments with the tarantula Grammostola rosea again suggested tarsal silk secretion. All observations of the supposed tarsal silk were made in spiders with functional spinnerets, thus contamination with silk coming from the spinnerets could not be excluded. Recent morphological arguments also questioned putative tarsal spigots and proposed that they are actually contact chemoreceptors. We here test the supposed tarsal silk secretion in Aphonopelma seemanni, Avicularia avicularia, Brachypelma vagans and Grammostola mollicoma using similar experimental conditions as the previous authors, but with sealed spinnerets. Our results clearly demonstrate that when spinnerets are sealed, tarantulas do not show any tarsal silk secretion. We reinterpret those putative tarsal spigots and discuss possible evolutionary implications of these findings. © 2012. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

Spodoptera frugiperda Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is considered as the most important pest of maize in almost all tropical America. In Argentina, the earwig Doru lineare Eschscholtz (Dermaptera: Forficulidae) has been observed preying on S. frugiperda egg masses in corn crops, but no data about its potential role as a biocontrol agent of this pest have been provided. The predation efficiency of D. lineare on newly emerged S. frugiperda larva was evaluated through a laboratory functional response study. D. lineare showed type II functional response to S. frugiperda larval density, and disc equation estimations of searching efficiency and handling time were (a) = 0.374 and (t) = 182.9 s, respectively. Earwig satiation occurred at 39.4 S. frugiperda larvae.

Ferretti N.,CONICET | Gonzalez A.,CONICET | Perez-Miles F.,Seccion Entomologia
Zoological Studies | Year: 2012

The distributional history of the South American endemic genus Cyriocosmus (Araneae, Theraphosidae) was reconstructed, and a spatial analysis of vicariance was conducted. Results obtained with the software RASP (Reconstruct Ancestral State in Phylogenies), suggest that Cyriocosmus originated within an area currently represented by the biogeographical subregions of the Amazonian and Paramo Punan. We found 3 vicariant nodes: the 1st into the Amazonian-Caribbean, the 2nd into the Caribbean, and the 3rd into the Amazonian-Parana, Amazonian-Chacoan, and Amazonian-Parana and Chacoan. Using the Vicariance Inference Program we found that 1 vicariant node different from that obtained with RASP, and the hypothetical barriers for the clade were represented by the Voronoi lines in South America. In order to interpret biogeographical events that affected the genus Cyriocosmus, these results are contrasted with major geological events that occurred in South America, and also with previous biogeographical hypotheses.

Ferretti N.,CONICET | Perez-Miles F.,Seccion Entomologia | Gonzalez A.,CONICET
Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment | Year: 2014

The present study used the previously defined biogeographic provinces from Argentina as the starting point for a parsimony analysis of endemicity and cluster analysis. The goal of the study was to use a dataset of distributional patterns of mygalomorph spiders from Argentina to evaluate the historical relationships of the biogeographic provinces. The analyses showed the following relationships: Yungas and Puna; Pampa and Chaco, Monte and Prepuna; Parana Forest and Araucaria angustifolia Forest; Central and Subandean Patagonia. Biogeographical regionalizations are useful as general reference models and their heuristic value should be explored by examining the geographical distribution of other taxa. © 2014 © 2014 Taylor & Francis.

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