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Niculcea M.,Seccion Biologia Vegetal | Martinez-Lapuente L.,University of La Rioja | Guadalupe Z.,University of La Rioja | Sanchez-Diaz M.,Seccion Biologia Vegetal | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Plant Growth Regulation | Year: 2013

Water-deficit irrigation to grapevines reduces plant growth, yield, and berry growth, altering the ripening process, all of which may influence fruit composition and wine quality. Therefore, the goals of this study were (1) to investigate the influence of the main endogenous berry hormones, abscisic acid (ABA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), salicylic acid (SA), and jasmonic acid (JA), on berry growth and ripening under water-deficit conditions and (2) to analyze changes in fruit composition, specifically N compounds, under water deprivation. The study was carried out using container-grown Tempranillo grapevines grown under controlled conditions in a greenhouse. Two irrigation treatments were imposed: control (well-watered) and sustained deficit irrigation (SDI). Water deficit decreased leaf area and the source-to-sink ratio, reduced yield and berry size, and decreased concentrations of the main phenolic compounds. SDI also modified berry hormonal status. At the pea-size stage, SDI berries had lower IAA and higher JA and SA than nonstressed berries. At veraison (onset of ripening), accumulation of ABA was less accentuated in SDI than in control berries. At harvest, the content of amino acids and free ammonium was low in both treatments but SDI-treated berries showed a significant accumulation of amines. Results suggest that water restrictions to grapevines might be playing a physiological role in reducing berry growth through affecting hormone dynamics, phenolic synthesis, and the berry amino acid content and composition, which could compromise fruit quality. Possible roles of endogenous IAA controlling berry size and endogenous ABA and SA controlling levels of anthocyanins and flavonols at harvest are discussed. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Sanz-Saez T.,Seccion Biologia Vegetal | Erice G.,Seccion Biologia Vegetal | Aguirreolea J.,Seccion Biologia Vegetal | Irigoyen J.J.,Seccion Biologia Vegetal | Sanchez-Diaz M.,Seccion Biologia Vegetal
Environmental and Experimental Botany | Year: 2012

The aim of the present study was to analyse the effect of elevated CO 2 at different temperature, inoculation with three Sinorhizobium meliloti strains and growth in two seasons (summer and autumn) on plant growth, photosynthesis and N 2 fixation (estimated as apparent nitrogenase activity, ANA). One of the objectives was to demonstrate that most efficient N 2-fixing strains could improve alfalfa forage production. The second objective was to test if S. meliloti strains alter their efficiency under climate change conditions. The third objective was to show if seasonal changes may modify alfalfa productivity. Interaction of CO 2 and temperature enhanced alfalfa dry matter in both seasons; however, plants produced more dry matter in autumn than in summer, due to the negative effect of elevated summer temperature on N 2-fixation. Higher yield in summer corresponded to plants in symbiosis with 102F78 strain being not related to enhanced nodule dry matter or apparent nitrogenase activity but to putative lower carbon consumption for N 2 fixing process. Contrariwise, in autumn the highest yield was obtained by 102F34 as a consequence of increased nodule dry matter induced under elevated CO 2 and temperature. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Baslam M.,Seccion Biologia Vegetal | Pascual I.,Seccion Biologia Vegetal | Sanchez-Diaz M.,Seccion Biologia Vegetal | Erro J.,University of Navarra | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

The improvement of the nutritional quality of lettuce by its association with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) has been recently reported in a previous study. The aim of this research was to evaluate if the fertilization with three P sources differing in water solubility affects the effectiveness of AMF for improving lettuce growth and nutritional quality. The application of either water-soluble P sources (Hewitt's solution and single superphosphate) or the water-insoluble (WI) fraction of a "rhizosphere-controlled fertilizer" did not exert negative effects on the establishment of the mycorrhizal symbiosis. AMF improved lettuce growth and nutritional quality. Nevertheless, the effect was dependent on the source of P and cultivar. Batavia Rubia Munguía (green cultivar) benefited more than Maravilla de Verano (red cultivar) in terms of mineral nutrients, total soluble sugars, and ascorbate contents. The association of lettuce with AMF resulted in greater quantities of anthocyanins in plants fertilized with WI, carotenoids when plants received either Hewitt's solution or WI, and phenolics regardless of the P fertilizer applied. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

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