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Sabha, Libya

Sabha University is a public university in the city of Sabha, Libya, with campuses at Murzuq, Brak and Ghat.Sabha only awards bachelor's degrees. There are nine faculties, or schools, at Sabha University:AgricultureArtsArts and ScienceEconomics and AccountancyEngineeringLawMedicinePhysical EducationScienceEducation↑ ↑ ↑ Wikipedia.

Alssageer M.A.,Sebha University | Kowalski S.R.,University of South Australia
Libyan Journal of Medicine | Year: 2012

Objectives: To examine the frequency of pharmaceutical company representative (PCR) interactions with doctors in Libya and review possible associations between these interactions and the personal and practice setting characteristics of doctors. Method: An anonymous survey questionnaire was circulated to 1,000 Libyan doctors in selected public and private practice settings in Tripoli, Benghazi and Sebha. Results: A questionnaire return rate of 61% (608 returned questionnaires) was achieved. Most respondents (94%) reported that they had been visited by PCRs at least 'once' in the last year. Fifty per cent of respondents met with PCRs at least once a month, and 20% at least once a week. The following characteristics were significantly associated with meeting with a representative more than once a week: age, gender (male>female), years of practice, being a specialist (other than an anaesthesiologist) or working in private practice. Ninety-one per cent of doctors reported that they had received at least one kind of relationship gift during the last year. Printed materials (79%), simple gifts (73%) and drug samples (69%) were the most common relationship products given to respondents. Reimbursements or sponsored items were reported by 33% of respondents. Physician specialists were more likely to receive drug samples or sponsored items than residents, general practitioners, anaesthesiologists or surgeons (P<0.01). Participants working in private practice alone or in both sectors were more likely to receive printed materials, simple gifts or free samples from PCRs than doctors working in the public sector (P<0.05). Conclusion: Libyan doctors are frequently visited by PCRs. Doctors, working in private practice or specialist practice, are especially targeted by promotional activities. An agreed code of conduct for pharmaceutical promotion in Libya between doctors and PCRs should be created.© 2012 Fatemeh Torabi et al.

Alssageer M.A.,Sebha University | Kowalski S.R.,University of South Australia
Pan African Medical Journal | Year: 2013

Introduction: Evidence suggests that 80-90% of doctors in most countries across the world are frequently visited by pharmaceutical company representatives (PCRs). The objective of study to examine perceptions of Libyan doctors between August and October 2010, regarding the benefits, ethical issues and influences of their interactions with (PCRs). Methods: An anonymous questionnaire was circulated to 1,000 Libyan doctors in selected public and private practice settings in Tripoli, Benghazi and Sebha. Results: The major benefits of PCR visits reported in the 608 evaluable responses were; receiving new information about products (94.4%). The majority of doctors (75%) were not against the provision of gifts but were more comfortable if it was cheap (51%) and had educational value (51%). Doctors who received more printed materials, simple gifts or drug samples were less likely to disapprove of accepting gifts (p<0.05). The majority of respondents (56%) disagreed with the statement that PCRs should be the main source of drug information. Sixty-two per cent of respondents reported that they believed pharmaceutical advertisements had minimal influence on doctors' prescribing practices in general and had even less effect (80%) on their own prescribing. Most doctors (99%) were unaware of any published guidelines for medical practitioner-PCR interactions and 57% of the respondents approved of establishing a national policy to control PCR interactions. Conclusion: The majority of surveyed doctors believed that their interactions with PCRs were beneficial but should not be the sole source of drug information. Education regarding promotional techniques should be provided in medical schools and be reinforced at an institutional level. © Mustafa Alssageer et al.

Alkilany A.A.A.,Sebha University
Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Visualisation | Year: 2010

In this paper we present a more effective method to discover the periodicity in web log sequence data which handle missing sequences which may occur during the aggregation process, such as sequences that swing between two periods. On other hands, a sequence may start near the end time of a period where the rest of those sequences appear in next period however, these kinds of issues certainly it will leave its effect of periodicity discovery. Moreover, we incorporated OLAP data cube techniques in the aggregation process in order to handle large generated sequences and visualised the discovered periodic patterns, in order to study its impact on periodicity discovery. © 2010 IEEE.

Alfellani M.A.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Alfellani M.A.,Sebha University | Stensvold C.R.,Statens Serum Institute | Vidal-Lapiedra A.,University of Valencia | And 3 more authors.
Acta Tropica | Year: 2013

Blastocystis is a common intestinal micro-eukaryote found in both humans and non-human hosts and known to be genetically very diverse. It has been divided into numerous subtypes (STs), nine of which have been identified in humans to date. Surveys of ST prevalence have started to emerge over the past few years but to date no data are available for any African country except Egypt and Tanzania. In this study, we determined the prevalence of Blastocystis STs in populations from Libya, Liberia and Nigeria, as well as expanding the dataset available for the UK. A total of 356 Blastocystis STs were identified in this study, 271 from the UK, 38 from Libya, 25 from Liberia and 22 from Nigeria. SSU rRNA gene sequences revealed the presence of eight of the nine STs known from humans but at varying frequencies between countries. ST1 was the most common ST in Libya and Nigeria whereas ST3 showed the highest frequency in the other two countries, as indeed is the case in most populations around the world. ST4 was absent in Libya and ST2 in Nigeria, while no ST5, ST6, ST8 or ST9 infections were detected in any of the three African populations. The picture emerging from this and other surveys suggests that there is significant variation in ST prevalence between populations. Some of the possible reasons for and implications of this diversity are discussed. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Alssageer M.A.,Sebha University | Kowalski S.R.,University of South Australia
Libyan Journal of Medicine | Year: 2012

Objective: To examine the opinions of Libyan doctors regarding the quality of drug information provided by pharmaceutical company representatives (PCRs) during detailing visits. Method: An anonymous survey was conducted among 1,000 doctors from selected institutes in Tripoli, Benghazi and Sebha. Doctors were asked questions regarding the quality of information provided during drug-detailing visits. Results: A questionnaire return rate of 61% (608 returned questionnaires out of 1,000) was achieved. The majority (n=463, 76%) of surveyed participants graded the quality of information provided as average. Approximately, 40% of respondents indicated that contraindications, precautions, interactions and adverse effects of products promoted by PCRs were never or rarely mentioned during promotional visits, and 65% of respondents indicated that an alternative drug to the promoted product was never or rarely mentioned by the representatives. More than 50% of respondents (n=310, 51%) reported that PCRs were not always able to answer all questions about their products. Only seven respondents (1%) believed that PCRs never exaggerated the uniqueness, efficacy or safety of their product. The majority of respondents (n=342, 56%) indicated that verbal information was not always consistent with written information provided. Seven per cent of respondents (n=43) admitted that they did not know whether or not the verbal information provided by PCRs was consistent with written information. Conclusion: Doctors believe that the provision of drug information by PCRs in Libya is incomplete and often exaggerated. Pharmaceutical companies should ensure that their representatives are trained to a standard to provide reliable information regarding the products they promote. © 2012 Mustafa A. Alssageer and Stefan R. Kowalski.

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