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Seattle, WA, United States

Kirschbaum R.,Herrera Environmental Consultants Inc. | Spencer B.,Seattle Public Utilities
Low Impact Development 2010: Redefining Water in the City - Proceedings of the 2010 International Low Impact Development Conference

Like many cities in the United States, a large portion of Seattle's underground drainage pipe networks consist of combined stormwater/sewer systems that were designed to convey both sewage and rainfall runoff from paved surfaces, such as rooftops and roadways. These systems were not designed with adequate capacity for the demands placed on them today. With population and development in Seattle already beyond the designed system capacity in many areas, the combined sewer systems are frequently overwhelmed during large rain storms, resulting in combined sewer overflows (CSOs) into local lakes and Puget Sound. Seattle Public Utilities (SPU) is investigating various strategies for controlling these CSO events. Traditionally, large centralized detention facilities have been used to store high flow volumes during the peak of a storm, which are then released back to the system after the storm has subsided. Currently SPU is conducting a pilot project in the Lakewood neighborhood to evaluate the use of decentralized (customer-based) strategies for reducing CSOs to Lake Washington. These strategies include rain gardens and cisterns installed on single family residential sites to capture and control rainwater on-site. Hydrologic and hydraulic modeling performed for this project using InfoWorks Collection System (CS) and Western Washington Hydrology Model (WWHM) indicate that the pilot project alone would not achieve the regulatory goal of one CSO event per year in the basin. However, widespread use of cisterns and rain gardens by Lakewood residents could significantly reduce the required volume of other traditional CSO infrastructure by as much as 25 percent. This paper documents the development and evaluation of alternatives for decentralized strategy pilot studies in the Lakewood neighborhood of Seattle, Washington. To support alternative development, an array of decentralized strategies was evaluated for CSO reduction benefits, as well as potential water quality impacts to Lake Washington. © 2010 ASCE. Source

Spencer B.,Seattle Public Utilities
Low Impact Development 2010: Redefining Water in the City - Proceedings of the 2010 International Low Impact Development Conference

Seattle Public Utilities (SPU) received a grant from the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to evaluate the use of decentralized green stormwater infrastructure through the private property installation of rain gardens and cisterns in a combined sewer overflow basin. Over a 2 year period, residents were educated and recruited to participate in the program. A variety of methods were used to educate and recruit participants, and lessons learned along the way have influenced the strategies the city will implement as it pursues additional installation of green stormwater infrastructure on private properties as part of SPU's Residential RainWise program in target combined sewer overflow (CSO) basins. © 2010 ASCE. Source

Tackett T.,Seattle Public Utilities
Low Impact Development 2010: Redefining Water in the City - Proceedings of the 2010 International Low Impact Development Conference

Seattle is embracing sustainable building and green infrastructure stormwater management practices through numerous different programs and policies. The newest addition to Seattle's policies is the implementation of a stormwater code requiring the use of green stormwater infrastructure to the maximum extent feasible. This paper provides an overview of the tools in place for new and redevelopment and how Seattle is reviewing and enforcing the inclusion of green stormwater infrastructure. © 2010 ASCE. Source

Anderson J.H.,University of Washington | Faulds P.L.,Seattle Public Utilities | Atlas W.I.,Simon Fraser University | Pess G.R.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | Quinn T.P.,University of Washington
Molecular Ecology

Selection during the colonization of new habitat is critical to the process of local adaptation, but has rarely been studied. We measured the form, direction, and strength of selection on body size and date of arrival to the breeding grounds over the first three cohorts (2003-2005) of a coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) population colonizing 33 km of habitat made accessible by modification of Landsburg Diversion Dam, on the Cedar River, Washington, USA. Salmon were sampled as they bypassed the dam, parentage was assigned based on genotypes from 10 microsatellite loci, and standardized selection gradients were calculated using the number of returning adult offspring as the fitness metric. Larger fish in both sexes produced more adult offspring, and the magnitude of the effect increased in subsequent years for males, suggesting that low densities attenuated traditional size-biased intrasexual competition. For both sexes, directional selection favoured early breeders in 2003, but stabilizing selection on breeding date was observed in 2004 and 2005. Adults that arrived, and presumably bred, early produced stream-rearing juvenile offspring that were larger at a common date than offspring from later parents, providing a possible mechanism linking breeding date to offspring viability. Comparison to studies employing similar methodology indicated selection during colonization was strong, particularly with respect to reproductive timing. Finally, female mean reproductive success exceeded that needed for replacement in all years so the population expanded in the first generation, demonstrating that salmon can proficiently exploit vacant habitat. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

Bierbaum R.,University of Michigan | Smith J.B.,Stratus Consulting | Lee A.,Chevron | Blair M.,American Cancer Society | And 8 more authors.
Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change

We reviewed existing and planned adaptation activities of federal, tribal, state, and local governments and the private sector in the United States (U.S.) to understand what types of adaptation activities are underway across different sectors and scales throughout the country. Primary sources of review included material officially submitted for consideration in the upcoming 2013 U.S. National Climate Assessment and supplemental peer-reviewed and grey literature. Although substantial adaptation planning is occurring in various sectors, levels of government, and the private sector, few measures have been implemented and even fewer have been evaluated. Most adaptation actions to date appear to be incremental changes, not the transformational changes that may be needed in certain cases to adapt to significant changes in climate. While there appear to be no one-size-fits-all adaptations, there are similarities in approaches across scales and sectors, including mainstreaming climate considerations into existing policies and plans, and pursuing no- and low-regrets strategies. Despite the positive momentum in recent years, barriers to implementation still impede action in all sectors and across scales. The most significant barriers include lack of funding, policy and institutional constraints, and difficulty in anticipating climate change given the current state of information on change. However, the practice of adaptation can advance through learning by doing, stakeholder engagements (including "listening sessions"), and sharing of best practices. Efforts to advance adaptation across the U.S. and globally will necessitate the reduction or elimination of barriers, the enhancement of information and best practice sharing mechanisms, and the creation of comprehensive adaptation evaluation metrics. © The Author(s) 2012. Source

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