Seattle Childrens Craniofacial Center

Seattle, WA, United States

Seattle Childrens Craniofacial Center

Seattle, WA, United States
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Brinkley J.F.,University of Washington | Borromeo C.,University of Pittsburgh | Cox T.C.,Seattle University | Cunningham M.J.,University of Washington | And 3 more authors.
American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics | Year: 2013

We introduce the Ontology of Craniofacial Development and Malformation (OCDM) as a mechanism for representing knowledge about craniofacial development and malformation, and for using that knowledge to facilitate integrating craniofacial data obtained via multiple techniques from multiple labs and at multiple levels of granularity. The OCDM is a project of the NIDCR-sponsored FaceBase Consortium, whose goal is to promote and enable research into the genetic and epigenetic causes of specific craniofacial abnormalities through the provision of publicly accessible, integrated craniofacial data. However, the OCDM should be usable for integrating any web-accessible craniofacial data, not just those data available through FaceBase. The OCDM is based on the Foundational Model of Anatomy (FMA), our comprehensive ontology of canonical human adult anatomy, and includes modules to represent adult and developmental craniofacial anatomy in both human and mouse, mappings between homologous structures in human and mouse, and associated malformations. We describe these modules, as well as prototype uses of the OCDM for integrating craniofacial data. By using the terms from the OCDM to annotate data, and by combining queries over the ontology with those over annotated data, it becomes possible to create "intelligent" queries that can, for example, find gene expression data obtained from mouse structures that are precursors to homologous human structures involved in malformations such as cleft lip. We suggest that the OCDM can be useful not only for integrating craniofacial data, but also for expressing new knowledge gained from analyzing the integrated data. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Wang K.H.,Seattle Childrens Research Institute | Heike C.L.,Clinical Translational Science Institute | Heike C.L.,Seattle Childrens Craniofacial Center | Heike C.L.,University of Washington | And 10 more authors.
Frontiers in Physiology | Year: 2014

Orofacial clefting is a common birth defect with wide phenotypic variability. Many systems have been developed to classify cleft patterns to facilitate diagnosis, management, surgical treatment, and research. In this review, we examine the rationale for different existing classification schemes and determine their inter-relationships, as well as strengths and deficiencies for subclassification of clefts of the lip. The various systems differ in how they describe and define attributes of cleft lip (CL) phenotypes. Application and analysis of the CL classifications reveal discrepancies that may result in errors when comparing studies that use different systems. These inconsistencies in terminology, variable levels of subclassification, and ambiguity in some descriptions may confound analyses and impede further research aimed at understanding the genetics and etiology of clefts, development of effective treatment options for patients, as well as cross-institutional comparisons of outcome measures. Identification and reconciliation of discrepancies among existing systems is the first step toward creating a common standard to allow for a more explicit interpretation that will ultimately lead to a better understanding of the causes and manifestations of phenotypic variations in clefting. © 2014 Wang, Heike, Clarkson, Mejino, Brinkley, Tse, Birgfeld, Fitzsimons and Cox.


Evans K.N.,University of Washington | Evans K.N.,Seattle Childrens Craniofacial Center | Gruss J.S.,Seattle Childrens Craniofacial Center | Gruss J.S.,University of Washington | And 8 more authors.
American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part A | Year: 2013

Frontonasal Dysplasia (FND) and Oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum (OAVS) are two well-recognized clinical entities. With features of both FND and OAVS, the term oculoauriculofrontonasal syndrome (OAFNS) was coined in 1981. The OAFNS phenotype combines elements of abnormal morphogenesis of the frontonasal and maxillary process (derived from forebrain neural crest) with abnormal development of the first and second branchial arches (derived from hindbrain neural crest). We present a case series of 33 children with OAFNS ascertained from a comprehensive review of the literature and report an additional retrospective series of eight patients displaying features consistent with OAFNS. Notably, in a subset of our cases, we have observed abnormalities in nasal ossification and bony structures of the maxilla that have not previously described in OAFNS and are not seen in either FND or OAVS. We present the phenotype and novel naso-maxillary findings and explore potential etiologic and developmental pathways for OAFNS. We highlight the differences in phenotypic characteristics of OAFNS compared to OAVS and FND. These observations support the classification of OAFNS as a discrete syndrome. Further phenotypic refinements of OAFNS are needed to understand pathogenesis of this syndrome and the newly described nasal malformation may help identify the etiology. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Homayounfar N.,Seattle Childrens Research Institute | Homayounfar N.,University of Washington | Homayounfar N.,University of Maryland, Baltimore | Park S.S.,Seattle Childrens Research Institute | And 7 more authors.
Archives of Oral Biology | Year: 2015

Objective: Previous investigations suggest that the embryonic origins of the calvarial tissues (neural crest or mesoderm) may account for the molecular mechanisms underlying sutural development. The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences in the gene expression of human cranial tissues and assess the presence of an expression signature reflecting their embryonic origins. Methods: Using microarray technology, we investigated global gene expression of cells from the frontal and parietal bones and the metopic and sagittal intrasutural mesenchyme (ISM) of four human foetal calvaria. qRT-PCR of a selected group of genes was done to validate the microarray analysis. Paired comparison and correlation analyses were performed on microarray results. Results: Of six paired comparisons, frontal and parietal compartments (distinct tissue types of calvaria, either bone or intrasutural mesenchyme) had the most different gene expression profiles despite being composed of the same tissue type (bone). Correlation analysis revealed two distinct gene expression profiles that separate frontal and metopic compartments from parietal and sagittal compartments. TFAP2A, TFAP2B, ICAM1, SULF1, TNC and FOXF2 were among differentially expressed genes. Conclusion: Transcriptional profiles of two groups of tissues, frontal and metopic compartments vs. parietal and sagittal compartments, suggest differences in proliferation, differentiation and extracellular matrix production. Our data suggest that in the second trimester of human foetal development, a gene expression signature of neural crest origin still exists in frontal and metopic compartments while gene expression of parietal and sagittal compartments is more similar to mesoderm. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Stamper B.D.,Seattle Childrens Research Institute | Park S.S.,Seattle Childrens Research Institute | Beyer R.P.,University of Washington | Bammler T.K.,University of Washington | And 2 more authors.
Gene Regulation and Systems Biology | Year: 2012

Background: The premature fusion of one cranial suture, also referred to as non-syndromic craniosynostosis, most commonly involves premature fusion of the sagittal, coronal, or metopic sutures, in that order. Population-based epidemiological studies have found that the birth prevalence of single-suture craniosynostosis is both suture- and sex-dependent. Methods: Transcriptomic data from 199 individuals with isolated sagittal (n = 100), unilateral coronal (n = 50), and metopic (n = 49) synostosis were compared against a control population (n = 50) to identify transcripts accounting for the different sex-based frequencies observed in this disease. Results: Differential sex-based gene expression was classified as either gained (divergent) or lost (convergent) in affected individuals to identify transcripts related to disease predilection. Divergent expression was dependent on synostosis sub-type, and was extensive in metopic craniosynostosis specifically. Convergent microarray-based expression was independent of synostosis sub-type, with convergent expression of FBN2, IGF2BP3, PDE1C and TINAGL1 being the most robust across all synostosis sub-types. Conclusions: Analysis of sex-based gene expression followed by validation by qRT-PCR identified that concurrent upregulation of FBN2 and IGF2BP3, and downregulation of TINAGL1 in craniosynostosis cases were all associated with increased RUNX2 expression and may represent a transcriptomic signature that can be used to characterize a subset of single-suture craniosynostosis cases. © the author(s), publisher and licensee Libertas Academica Ltd.


Park S.S.,Seattle Childrens Research Institute | Beyer R.P.,University of Washington | Smyth M.D.,University of Washington | Clarke C.M.,Seattle Childrens Research Institute | And 7 more authors.
Bone | Year: 2015

Single suture craniosynostosis (SSC) is the premature fusion of one calvarial suture and occurs in 1-1700-2500 live births. Congenital fusion of either the sagittal, metopic, or coronal sutures represents 95% of all cases of SSC. Sagittal and metopic synostosis have a male preponderance (3:1) while premature fusion of the coronal suture has a female preponderance (2:1). Although environmental and genetic factors contribute to SSC, the etiology of the majority of SSC cases remains unclear. In this study, 227 primary calvarial osteoblast cell lines from patients with coronal, metopic, or sagittal synostosis and unaffected controls were established and assayed for ALP activity and BrdU incorporation (n. = 226) as respective measures of early stage osteoblast differentiation and proliferation. Primary osteoblast cell lines from individuals with sagittal synostosis demonstrated higher levels of ALP activity and reduced proliferation when compared to control lines. In order to address the sex differences in SSC types, the data was further stratified by sex. Osteoblasts from males and females with sagittal synostosis as well as males with metopic synostosis demonstrated higher levels of ALP activity when compared to sex matched controls, and males with sagittal or metopic synostosis demonstrated reduced levels of proliferation. In order to elucidate genes and pathways involved in these observed phenotypes, correlation analyses comparing ALP activity and proliferation to global gene expression was performed. Transcripts related to osteoblast differentiation were identified both differentially up and downregulated, correlated with ALP activity when compared to controls, and demonstrated a striking sex specific gene expression pattern. These data support that the dysregulation of osteoblast differentiation plays a role in the development of SSC and that genetic factors contribute to the observed sex related differences. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.


Mefford H.C.,University of Washington | Shafer N.,University of Washington | Antonacci F.,University of Washington | Tsai J.M.,University of Washington | And 11 more authors.
American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part A | Year: 2010

Little is known about genes that underlie isolated single-suture craniosynostosis. In this study, we hypothesize that rare copy number variants (CNV) in patients with isolated single-suture craniosynostosis contain genes important for cranial development. Using whole genome array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), we evaluated DNA from 186 individuals with single-suture craniosynostosis for submicroscopic deletions and duplications. We identified a 1.1Mb duplication encompassing RUNX2 in two affected cousins with metopic synostosis and hypodontia. Given that RUNX2 is required as a master switch for osteoblast differentiation and interacts with TWIST1, mutations in which also cause craniosynostosis, we conclude that the duplication in this family is pathogenic, albeit with reduced penetrance. In addition, wefind that a total of 7.5%of individuals with single-suture synostosis in our series have at least one rare deletion or duplication that contains genes and that has not been previously reported in unaffected individuals. The genes within and disrupted by CNVs in this cohort are potential novel candidate genes for craniosynostosis. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.


Collett B.R.,University of Washington | Collett B.R.,Seattle Childrens Research Institute | Aylward E.H.,Seattle Childrens Research Institute | Berg J.,Seattle Childrens Research Institute | And 6 more authors.
Child's Nervous System | Year: 2012

Purpose: Infants with deformational plagiocephaly (DP) have been shown to exhibit developmental delays relative to unaffected infants. Although the mechanisms accounting for these delays are unknown, one hypothesis focuses on underlying differences in brain development. In this study, we used MRI to examine brain volume and shape in infants with and without DP. Methods: Participants included 20 infants with DP (mean age= 7.9 months, SD=1.2; n=12 male) and 21 controls (mean age= 7.9 months, SD=1.3; n=11 male). Measures included volumes of the total brain and cerebellum; midsagittal areas of the corpus callosum and cerebellar vermis; and linear distance measures used to quantify the shape of selected brain structures. We also evaluated the association between shape measures and developmental scores on the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-III (BSID-III). Results: Brain volume did not distinguish cases and controls (p=.214-.976). However, cases exhibited greater asymmetry and flattening of the posterior brain (p<.001-.002) and cerebellar vermis (p=.035), shortening of the corpus callosum (p=.012), and differences in the orientation of the corpus callosum (p=.005). Asymmetry and flattening of brain structures were associated with worse developmental outcomes on the BSID-III. Conclusions: Infants with DP show differences in brain shape, consistent with the skull deformity characteristic of this condition, and shape measures were associated with infant development. Longitudinal studies, beginning in the neonatal period, are needed to clarify whether developmental effects precede or follow brain deformation. © Springer-Verlag 2012.


Collett B.R.,Seattle Childrens Hospital | Collett B.R.,University of Washington | Gray K.E.,University of Washington | Kapp-Simon K.A.,Northwestern University | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Craniofacial Surgery | Year: 2013

Background: Single-suture craniosynostosis (SSC) results in head shape anomalies that likely affect social perceptions of appearance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate laypersons' ratings of attractiveness in children with and without SSC. Among cases, we also examined differences by suture fused and age at surgery. Methods: We collected photographs of 196 children with SSC and 186 children without SSC as infants (before surgery, for cases) and at ages 18 and 36 months. Photographs were rated by 8 raters, who were blinded to the population being studied. We used linear regression to compare appearance ratings for the 2 groups at each visit and to evaluate changes over time. Regression analyses were used to examine the association between age at surgery and appearance ratings. Results: Children with SSC received lower appearance ratings than unaffected controls at each visit (all P < 0.001). Appearance ratings decreased over time, with a similar trajectory for children with and without SSC. Among cases, those with unicoronal and lambdoid synostosis had the lowest ratings and those with sagittal synostosis had the highest. Age at surgery was inversely associated with appearance ratings. Conclusions: Children with SSC received lower appearance ratings than unaffected controls, with minimal change after surgery. Better outcomes were associated with earlier surgery. These findings do not indicate that children with SSC failed to benefit from surgery, as without surgical intervention, asymmetrical head shape would likely have worsened over time. However, our data suggest that appearance does not fully normalize. © 2013 by Mutaz B. Habal, MD.

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