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Wuensch S.A.,University of Rochester | Spahn J.,Seattle Biomedical | Spahn J.,University of Rochester | Crispe I.N.,Seattle Biomedical
Hepatology | Year: 2010

Both hepatitis B and C viruses frequently establish chronic infection, raising the question whether T cells are poorly primed in the liver. To determine the role of different cell types in the activation of CD8+ T cells against hepatocellular antigens, we used an Adeno-associated virus to deliver ovalbumin to hepatocytes. In contrast to CD8+ T cells, CD4+ T cells were not activated. The CD8+ T cells were activated even in the absence of endogenous CD4+ T cells; however, in the liver, these cells were high in the programmed death-1 protein and low in CD127. Chimera experiments revealed that these CD8+ T cells were activated on a solid tissue cell. Conclusion: Priming of CD8+ T cells directly on nonhematopoietic cells, in the absence of CD4+ T cell help, results in suboptimal T cell activation. This could explain the impaired function of CD8+ T cells seen in chronic liver infection. Copyright © 2010 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.


Zhang Z.,Northern Illinois University | Jakkaraju S.,Northern Illinois University | Blain J.,Northern Illinois University | Gogol K.,Northern Illinois University | And 13 more authors.
Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters | Year: 2013

Published biological data suggest that the methyl erythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway, a non-mevalonate isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway, is essential for certain bacteria and other infectious disease organisms. One highly conserved enzyme in the MEP pathway is 2C-methyl-d-erythritol 2,4-cyclodiphosphate synthase (IspF). Fragment-bound complexes of IspF from Burkholderia pseudomallei were used to design and synthesize a series of molecules linking the cytidine moiety to different zinc pocket fragment binders. Testing by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) found one molecule in the series to possess binding affinity equal to that of cytidine diphosphate, despite lacking any metal-coordinating phosphate groups. Close inspection of the SPR data suggest different binding stoichiometries between IspF and test compounds. Crystallographic analysis shows important variations between the binding mode of one synthesized compound and the pose of the bound fragment from which it was designed. The binding modes of these molecules add to our structural knowledge base for IspF and suggest future refinements in this compound series. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


PubMed | University of British Columbia, Seattle Biomedical, Seattle Biomedical Research Institute and University of Cape Town
Type: | Journal: Frontiers in immunology | Year: 2014

Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are a heterogeneous population of granulocytic or monocytic cells that suppress innate as well as adaptive immune responses. In healthy adults, immature myeloid cells differentiate into macrophages, dendritic cells, and granulocytes in the bone marrow and MDSC are rarely detected in peripheral blood. However, in certain pathologies, in particular malignancies and chronic infection, differentiation of these cells is altered resulting in accumulation of circulating suppressive myeloid cells. MDSC express suppressive factors such as arginase-1, reactive oxygen species, and inducible nitric oxide synthase, which have the ability to inhibit T cell proliferation and cytoxicity, induce the expansion of regulatory T cells, and block natural killer cell activation. It is increasingly recognized that MDSC alter the immune response to several cancers, and perhaps chronic viral infections, in clinically important ways. In this review, we outline the potential contribution of MDSC to the generation of feto-maternal tolerance and to the ineffective immune responses to many infections and vaccines observed in early post-natal life. Granulocytic MDSC are present in large numbers in pregnant women and in cord blood, and wane rapidly during infancy. Furthermore, cord blood MDSC suppress in vitro T cell and NK responses, suggesting that they may play a significant role in human immune ontogeny. However, there are currently no data that demonstrate in vivo effects of MDSC on feto-maternal tolerance or immune ontogeny. Studies are ongoing to evaluate the functional importance of MDSC, including their effects on control of infection and response to vaccination in infancy. Importantly, several pharmacologic interventions have the potential to reverse MDSC function. Understanding the role of MDSC in infant ontogeny and their mechanisms of action could lead to interventions that reduce mortality due to early-life infections.


Holla H.,Griffith University | Labaied M.,Seattle Biomedical | Pham N.,Griffith University | Jenkins I.D.,Griffith University | And 2 more authors.
Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters | Year: 2011

A short practical synthesis of a new natural product based scaffold (6), based on antitrypanosomal and antimalarial compounds isolated from different Plakortis species is described. The scaffold contains a peroxide unit that is surprisingly stable to chemical manipulation elsewhere in the molecule, enabling it to be elaborated into a small library of derivatives. It is stable to ozonolysis, reductive work-up with dimethylsulfide and the Wittig reaction with stabilized phosphorus ylides. The scaffold along with its Wittig analogues has displayed low to sub-micro molar (0.2-3.3 μM) antitrypanosomal activity. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Pham N.B.,Griffith University | Deydier S.,Griffith University | Labaied M.,Seattle Biomedical | Monnerat S.,Seattle Biomedical | And 2 more authors.
European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2014

The natural product, convolutamine I (1), has anti-trypanosomal activity however it has a high molecular weight of 473 due to a presence of 3 bromine atoms. The synthesis of the natural product convolutamine I (1) together with its analogues are presented. A SAR study against Trypanosoma brucei brucei led to compounds with improved physico-chemical properties: lower molecular weight and lower log P while maintaining potency (with a slight 2-fold improvement). © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Ching L.,Seattle Biomedical | Ching L.,University of Washington | Stamatatos L.,Seattle Biomedical | Stamatatos L.,University of Washington
Journal of Virology | Year: 2010

HIV-1 gp140 envelope immunogens express conserved epitopes that are targeted by broadly cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies, but they fail to elicit similar antibodies upon immunization. The poor immunogenicity of conserved epitopes on gp140 could be linked to the high immunogenicity of variable Env regions on such constructs. Previous studies have shown that the first hypervariable region (V1 loop) is immunogenic on soluble gp140s but elicits type-specific antibodies. To address issues related to the high immunogenicity of the V1 loop, two conceptually opposite approaches were tested. In the first approach, we eliminated the V1 loop from our gp140 construct and examined how V1 deletion altered the immunogenic properties of other Env regions. In the second approach, we took advantage of the high immunogenicity of the V1 loop and engrafted four diverse V1 loops onto a common gp140 Env "scaffold." These four scaffolds were used as a cocktail of immunogens to elicit diverse anti-V1 antibodies, under the hypothesis that eliciting diverse anti-V1 antibodies would expand the neutralizing breadth of immune sera. Our study indicates that three of four heterologous V1 loops were immunogenic on the common Env backbone "scaffold," but heterologous anti-V1 neutralizing responses were observed in only one case. Both types of V1 modification dampened the immunogenicity of the V3 loop, differentially altered the immunogenicity of the transmembrane gp41 subunit, and altered the relative immunogenicities of unknown Env regions, including potentially the CD4-binding site (CD4-bs) and trimer-specific targets, which elicited cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies but of limited breadth. Copyright © 2010, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


PubMed | Griffith University and Seattle Biomedical
Type: | Journal: European journal of medicinal chemistry | Year: 2014

The natural product, convolutamine I (1), has anti-trypanosomal activity however it has a high molecular weight of 473 due to a presence of 3 bromine atoms. The synthesis of the natural product convolutamine I (1) together with its analogues are presented. A SAR study against Trypanosoma brucei brucei led to compounds with improved physico-chemical properties: lower molecular weight and lower log P while maintaining potency (with a slight 2-fold improvement).

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