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Ferreira M.A.,New University of Lisbon | Johnson D.,Seascape Consultants Ltd. | Silva C.P.D.,New University of Lisbon
Journal of Coastal Research | Year: 2014

In 2013, the European Commission proposed a Directive to spur the integration of Maritime Spatial Planning (MSP) and Integrated Coastal Management (ICM) within and across Member States. To ascertain if key elements for integration exist, fundamental questions should be addressed: Are there (compatible) national policies/plans for the coast and ocean? Are ICM strategies in line with MSP policies? Are the agencies responsible for ICM and MSP coordinated? Are there common goals, indicators and integrated measures between both types of policies/plans? Portugal is one of the world's largest maritime nations, and is actively engaged in preparing policies and planning/management legislation for the ocean. An analysis of the current Portuguese policy/legislative framework, in terms of the above mentioned questions, suggested that: coordination among coastal and maritime policies and strategies is unclear, as is the articulation between institutions and between spatial plans for coastal and maritime zones; objectives of relevant policies are mismatched; there are yet no indicators to evaluate coastal and ocean policies/plans, and the articulation between measures to integrate ICM and MSP is unclear. Despite language barriers and people/institutional resistance to change, effective integration of MSP/ICM requires: flexibility and novel approaches, public participation and stakeholder involvement, systemic approaches, and finding strategic level indicators to evaluate integrated policies. Portugal can play a lead role in setting an example for other coastal nations worldwide. If appropriately tackled, the mismatches highlighted in this analysis provide pointers that may contribute to a more effective integration of ICM and MSP in Portugal and in other coastal nations. © Coastal Education & Research Foundation 2014. Source

Ferreira M.A.,New University of Lisbon | Pereira da Silva C.,New University of Lisbon | Campbell H.V.,Oregon State University | Conway F.,Oregon State University | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law | Year: 2015

This article explores the new legal framework for marine spatial planning (MSP) in Portugal. The main focus of the analysis is on the drivers of MSP processes, the consideration given to existing vs. new uses, and on the evaluation of alternatives, based on the U.S. experience, with a focus on perceptions of U.S. MSP practitioners. The Portuguese framework for MSP may lead to favoring new uses over existing ones and defines ambiguous criteria for the selection of alternatives that are mostly financial in nature. The article draws attention to the potential environmental, social and economic risks of improperly addressing competing marine uses in the new Portuguese MSP framework. © KONINKLIJKE BRILL NV, LEIDEN, 2015. Source

Freestone D.,Sargasso Sea Alliance | Johnson D.,Seascape Consultants Ltd. | Ardron J.,Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies E.V. | Morrison K.K.,Sargasso Sea Alliance | Unger S.,Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies E.V.
Marine Policy | Year: 2014

United Nations discussions on the governance of marine areas beyond national jurisdiction have questioned, but not yet reached a decision, on whether existing institutional agreements and structures are sufficient to meet global commitments to protect marine biodiversity, or if additional mechanisms may be required. This paper considers two very different efforts to protect marine biodiversity in these areas: (1) in the North-East Atlantic through the efforts of OSPAR Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic; and (2) in the central Atlantic, through the efforts of the Sargasso Sea Alliance led by the Bermuda government. In each case, action has been strongly supported by non-governmental organisations and subsequent progress has hinged upon on-going dedicated efforts of "champion" governments to bring other States on board. This paper outlines the difficulties that they have faced, and consequently why they have been time-consuming, and are not yet completed. The paper then considers 10 common recommendations that can be drawn from the experiences of these two distinct initiatives, and their relevance to on-going UN deliberations. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Rochette J.,Institute for Sustainable Development and International Relations IDDRI | Unger S.,Institute for Advanced Studies in Sustainability IASS | Herr D.,International Union for Conservation of Nature IUCN | Johnson D.,Seascape Consultants Ltd. | And 6 more authors.
Marine Policy | Year: 2014

The development of regional initiatives for the protection of the environment is a cornerstone of international environmental policies. With regard to marine and coastal issues, this regionalisation has mainly been taking place through regional seas programmes and Regional Fisheries Management Organisations. Some regional initiatives and organisations have progressively extended their activities to areas beyond national jurisdiction. This paper aims at analysing these recent developments, highlighting their interests and challenges, and proposing options to strengthen the efficiency of regional actions in these areas. It also highlights the need to consider the global discussions on a possible new global agreement and the development of regional actions as two interconnected processes. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Dunn D.C.,Duke University | Ardron J.,Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies | Bax N.,CSIRO | Bax N.,University of Tasmania | And 12 more authors.
Marine Policy | Year: 2014

In 2008, the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) adopted seven criteria to identify Ecologically or Biologically Significant Areas (EBSAs) ". . .in need of protection, in open ocean waters and deep sea habitats". This paper reviews the history of the development of the "EBSA process", which was originally driven by the commitment to establish marine protected areas in areas beyond national jurisdiction, but which has since broadened to encompass the possibility of informing marine spatial planning and other activities, both within and beyond national jurisdiction. Additionally, the paper summarizes ongoing efforts through CBD regional workshops to describe EBSAs and the development of the EBSA Repository, where information on these areas is to be stored. The overlap between the EBSA criteria and biodiversity criteria suites used by various authorities in areas beyond national jurisdiction is illustrated. The EBSA process has reached a critical juncture, whereby a large percentage of the global ocean has been considered by the regional workshops, but the procedure by which these areas can be incorporated into formal management structures has not yet been fully developed. Emerging difficulties regarding the mandate to describe, identify, endorse, or adopt EBSAs, are discussed. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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