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Hannover, Germany

Krestel R.,search Center | Fankhauser P.,German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence
Neurocomputing | Year: 2012

More and more content on the Web is generated by users. To organize this information and make it accessible via current search technology, tagging systems have gained tremendous popularity. Especially for multimedia content they allow to annotate resources with keywords (tags) which opens the door for classic text-based information retrieval. To support the user in choosing the right keywords, tag recommendation algorithms have emerged. In this setting, not only the content is decisive for recommending relevant tags but also the user's preferences.In this paper we introduce an approach to personalized tag recommendation that combines a probabilistic model of tags from the resource with tags from the user. As models we investigate simple language models as well as Latent Dirichlet Allocation. Extensive experiments on a real world dataset crawled from a big tagging system show that personalization improves tag recommendation, and our approach significantly outperforms state-of-the-art approaches. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source

Velasco E.,Robert Koch Institute | Agheneza T.,Robert Koch Institute | Denecke K.,search Center | Kirchner G.,Robert Koch Institute | Eckmanns T.,Robert Koch Institute
Milbank Quarterly | Year: 2014

Context The exchange of health information on the Internet has been heralded as an opportunity to improve public health surveillance. In a field that has traditionally relied on an established system of mandatory and voluntary reporting of known infectious diseases by doctors and laboratories to governmental agencies, innovations in social media and so-called user-generated information could lead to faster recognition of cases of infectious disease. More direct access to such data could enable surveillance epidemiologists to detect potential public health threats such as rare, new diseases or early-level warnings for epidemics. But how useful are data from social media and the Internet, and what is the potential to enhance surveillance? The challenges of using these emerging surveillance systems for infectious disease epidemiology, including the specific resources needed, technical requirements, and acceptability to public health practitioners and policymakers, have wide-reaching implications for public health surveillance in the 21st century. Methods This article divides public health surveillance into indicator-based surveillance and event-based surveillance and provides an overview of each. We did an exhaustive review of published articles indexed in the databases PubMed, Scopus, and Scirus between 1990 and 2011 covering contemporary event-based systems for infectious disease surveillance. Findings Our literature review uncovered no event-based surveillance systems currently used in national surveillance programs. While much has been done to develop event-based surveillance, the existing systems have limitations. Accordingly, there is a need for further development of automated technologies that monitor health-related information on the Internet, especially to handle large amounts of data and to prevent information overload. The dissemination to health authorities of new information about health events is not always efficient and could be improved. No comprehensive evaluations show whether event-based surveillance systems have been integrated into actual epidemiological work during real-time health events. Conclusions The acceptability of data from the Internet and social media as a regular part of public health surveillance programs varies and is related to a circular challenge: the willingness to integrate is rooted in a lack of effectiveness studies, yet such effectiveness can be proved only through a structured evaluation of integrated systems. Issues related to changing technical and social paradigms in both individual perceptions of and interactions with personal health data, as well as social media and other data from the Internet, must be further addressed before such information can be integrated into official surveillance systems. © 2014 Milbank Memorial Fund. Source

Bruni E.,University of Trento | Tran N.K.,search Center | Baroni M.,University of Trento
Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research | Year: 2014

Distributional semantic models derive computational representations of word meaning from the patterns of co-occurrence of words in text. Such models have been a success story of computational linguistics, being able to provide reliable estimates of semantic relatedness for the many semantic tasks requiring them. However, distributional models extract meaning information exclusively from text, which is an extremely impoverished basis compared to the rich perceptual sources that ground human semantic knowledge. We address the lack of perceptual grounding of distributional models by exploiting computer vision techniques that automatically identify discrete "visual words" in images, so that the distributional representation of a word can be extended to also encompass its co-occurrence with the visual words of images it is associated with. We propose a flexible architecture to integrate text- and image-based distributional information, and we show in a set of empirical tests that our integrated model is superior to the purely text-based approach, and it provides somewhat complementary semantic information with respect to the latter. © 2014 AI Access Foundation. Source

Doerfel S.,University of Kassel | Jaschke R.,search Center | Stumme G.,University of Kassel
ACM Transactions on Intelligent Systems and Technology | Year: 2016

Social bookmarking systems have established themselves as an important part in today's Web. In such systems, tag recommender systems support users during the posting of a resource by suggesting suitable tags. Tag recommender algorithms have often been evaluated in offline benchmarking experiments. Yet, the particular setup of such experiments has rarely been analyzed. In particular, since the recommendation quality usually suffers from difficulties such as the sparsity of the data or the cold-start problem for new resources or users, datasets have often been pruned to so-called cores (specific subsets of the original datasets), without much consideration of the implications on the benchmarking results. In this article, we generalize the notion of a core by introducing the new notion of a set-core, which is independent of any graph structure, to overcome a structural drawback in the previous constructions of cores on tagging data. We show that problems caused by some types of cores can be eliminated using set-cores. Further, we present a thorough analysis of tag recommender benchmarking setups using cores. To that end, we conduct a large-scale experiment on four real-world datasets, in which we analyze the influence of different cores on the evaluation of recommendation algorithms. We can show that the results of the comparison of different recommendation approaches depends on the selection of core type and level. For the benchmarking of tag recommender algorithms, our results suggest that the evaluation must be set up more carefully and should not be based on one arbitrarily chosen core type and level. © 2016 ACM. Source

Altingovde I.S.,search Center | Ozcan R.,Bilkent University | Ulusoy O.,Bilkent University
ACM Transactions on Information Systems | Year: 2012

Static index pruning techniques permanently remove a presumably redundant part of an inverted file, to reduce the file size and query processing time. These techniques differ in deciding which parts of an index can be removed safely; that is, without changing the top-ranked query results. As defined in the literature, the query view of a document is the set of query terms that access to this particular document, that is, retrieves this document among its top results. In this paper, we first propose using query views to improve the quality of the top results compared against the original results. We incorporate query views in a number of static pruning strategies, namely term-centric, document-centric, term popularity based and document access popularity based approaches, and show that the new strategies considerably outperform their counterparts especially for the higher levels of pruning and for both disjunctive and conjunctive query processing. Additionally,we combine the notions of term and document access popularity to form new pruning strategies, and further extend these strategies with the query views. The new strategies improve the result quality especially for the conjunctive query processing, which is the default and most common search mode of a search engine. © 2012 ACM. Source

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