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Daulaire N.,Norwegian Institute of Public Health | Bang A.,SEARCH | Tomson G.,Karolinska Institutet | Kalyango J.N.,Makerere University | Cars O.,Uppsala University
Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics | Year: 2015

Universal access to effective antimicrobials is essential to the realization of the right to health. At present, 5.7 million people die from treatable infections each year because they lack this access. Yet, community-based diagnosis and appropriate treatment for many of the leading causes of avoidable infectious deaths has been shown to be feasible and effective, demonstrating that strategies to reach the under-served need to receive high priority. This is a necessary part of a broad strategy to assure the long-term benefits of antimicrobials and to combat antimicrobial resistance, both because the lack of systematic and rigorous efforts to assure effective coverage increases the likelihood of antimicrobial resistance, and because global efforts aimed at antimicrobial stewardship and innovation cannot succeed without explicitly addressing the needs of the under-served. Elements of this strategy will include clear evidence-based treatment protocols, a robust international framework and locally tailored regulations, active engagement with communities and local health providers, strong attention to program management and cost considerations, a focus on the end user, and robust surveillance and response to emerging resistance patterns. Only by balancing the needs of universal access with stewardship and innovation, and assuring that they are mutually reinforcing can a global strategy hope to effectively address antimicrobial resistance. © 2015 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

Kancheva Landolt N.T.,Red Cross | Lakhonphon S.,SEARCH | Ananworanich J.,Red Cross | Ananworanich J.,Chulalongkorn University
AIDS Research and Therapy | Year: 2011

Sexual behavior of HIV-positive youths, whether infected perinatally, through risky behavior or other ways, is not substantially different from that of HIV-uninfected peers. Because of highly active antiretroviral therapy, increasing number of children, infected perinatally, are surviving into adolescence and are becoming sexually active and need reproductive health services. The objective of this article is to review the methods of contraception appropriate for HIV-positive adolescents with a special focus on hormonal contraceptives. Delaying the start of sexual life and the use of two methods thereafter, one of which is the male condom and the other a highly effective contraceptive method such as hormonal contraception or an intrauterine device, is currently the most effective option for those who desire simultaneous protection from both pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. Health care providers should be aware of the possible pharmacokinetic interactions between hormonal contraception and antiretrovirals. There is an urgent need for more information regarding metabolic outcomes of hormonal contraceptives, especially the effect of injectable progestins on bone metabolism, in HIV-positive adolescent girls. © 2011 Kancheva Landolt et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Mastenbroek B.,SEARCH
A + U-Architecture and Urbanism | Year: 2011

SeARCH, which stands for Stedenbouw en ARCHitectuur (Urban Planning & Architecture), is a practice that focuses on refining the edge between architecture and the surrounding environment till it is almost nonexistent and a landscape emerges instead, a+u talks to founder Bjarne Mastenbroek about his firm's workspace and stitching the fabric of a city.

Phanuphak N.,Red Cross | Teeratakulpisarn N.,Red Cross | Van Griensven F.,Red Cross | Chomchey N.,Red Cross | And 12 more authors.
Journal of the International AIDS Society | Year: 2015

Introduction: HIV transmission risk is highest during acute HIV infection (AHI). We evaluated HIV RNA in the anogenital compartment in men who have sex with men (MSM) during AHI and compared time to undetectable HIV RNA after three-drug versus five-drug antiretroviral therapy (ART) to understand risk for onward HIV transmission. Methods: MSM with AHI (n=54) had blood, seminal plasma and anal lavage collected for HIV RNA at baseline, days 3 and 7, and weeks 2, 4, 12 and 24. Data were compared between AHI stages: 1 (fourth-generation antigen-antibody combo immunoassay [IA]-, third-generation IA-, n=15), 2 (fourth-generation IA+, third-generation IA-, n=9) and 3 (fourth-generation IA+, third-generation IA+, western blot-/indeterminate, n=30) by randomization to five-drug (tenofovir+emtricitabine+efavirenz+raltegravir+maraviroc, n=18) versus three-drug (tenofovir+emtricitabine+efavirenz, n=18) regimens. Results: Mean age was 29 years and mean duration since HIV exposure was 15.4 days. Mean baseline HIV RNA was 5.5 in blood, 3.9 in seminal plasma and 2.6 log10 copies/ml in anal lavage (p<0.001). Blood and seminal plasma HIV RNA were higher in AHI Stage 3 compared to Stage 1 (p<0.01). Median time from ART initiation to HIV RNA <50 copies/ml was 60 days in blood, 15 days in seminal plasma and three days in anal lavage. Compared with the three-drug ART, the five-drug ART had a shorter time to HIV RNA <1500 copies/ml in blood (15 vs. 29 days, p=0.005) and <50 copies/ml in seminal plasma (13 vs. 24 days, p=0.048). Conclusions: Among MSM with AHI, HIV RNA was highest in blood, followed by seminal plasma and anal lavage. ART rapidly reduced HIV RNA in all compartments, with regimen intensified by raltegravir and maraviroc showing faster HIV RNA reductions in blood and seminal plasma. © 2015 Phanuphak N et al; licensee International AIDS Society.

Phanuphak N.,Red Cross | Teeratakulpisarn N.,Red Cross | Pankam T.,Red Cross | Kerr S.J.,HIV National | And 12 more authors.
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes | Year: 2013

Background:: HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) have a higher prevalence of anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and anal cancer incidence than HIV-negative MSM. High-risk HPV persistence is an important risk factor for the development of anal cancer. METHODS:: A total of 123 HIV-positive and 123 HIV-negative MSM were enrolled from the Thai Red Cross AIDS Research Centre in Bangkok, Thailand, and followed for 12 months. Anal sample collection for HPV genotyping was performed at every visit. HPV prevalence, incidence, clearance, and persistence were calculated. A logistic regression model was used to study factors associated with high-risk HPV persistence. RESULTS:: The prevalence of any anal HPV infection was 85% in HIV-positive and 58.5% in HIV-negative MSM (P < 0.0001). The prevalence of high-risk HPV infection was 57.5% in HIV-positive and 36.6% in HIV-negative MSM (P = 0.001). HPV 16 was the most common high-risk HPV type. HIV-positive MSM had a higher prevalence (22.5% vs. 9.8%, P = 0.008) and persistence (16.7% vs. 1.3%, P < 0.001) of HPV 16 than HIV-negative MSM and a trend for higher incidence (16.1 vs. 6.1 episodes/1000 person-months, incidence rate ratio 2.6, P = 0.058). HIV infection (odds ratio: 4.45, 95% confidence interval: 2.11 to 9.4, P < 0.001) and smoking in HIV-positive MSM (odds ratio: 2.3, 95% confidence interval: 1.17 to 4.5, P = 0.015) were independently associated with high-risk HPV persistence in multivariate models. CONCLUSIONS:: In addition to targeting HIV-positive MSM who are at higher risk for anal, high-risk HPV persistence, anal cancer prevention programs should also integrate behavioral interventions such as smoking cessation to modify risk for high-risk HPV persistence. © 2013 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

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