Bogor, Indonesia
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Putra P.B.,Ministry of Environment and Forestry | Wulandari D.,SEAMEO BIOTROP
Procedia Engineering | Year: 2016

Exploitation of open coal mining in tropical forest ecosystem is drastically leading to land degradation and damages. Rehabilitation of extremely degraded areas through re-vegetation by fast growing species is expected to speedily recover their dynamic of organic-carbon stocks. The purposes of the study were to compare carbon stock in the aboveground biomass, understorey, litters, and soil organic under land use changes areas of open coal mining areas. The study was conducted in the coal mine concession area of PT. Berau Coal, at Site Binungan in Berau, East Kalimantan, Indonesia from September 2013 to October 2014. Data were collected from 10 plots representing ecosystem dynamics of coal mining land, consisting of: secondary forest, degraded forest; non-active mining pits; backfilling post-mining; re-vegetation forest by 2 years-old Johar (Senna siamea) stand; 1, 3 and 7 years-old Sengon (Paraserianthes falcataria); mixed forest 7 years-old Sengon (Paraserianthes falcataria) and 3 years-old meranti (Shorea sp.), and mixed forest of 9 years-old mangium (Acacia mangium) and 2.6 years-old Shorea sp. Allometric method was used to calculate the aboveground biomass and their carbon stocks. Destructive method was used to obtain the biomass of understorey, litters, and soil organic carbon. The re-vegetation programs with fast growing species after 9 year rehabilitation at post-open-mining land in tropical areas were able to restore aboveground biomass at two-thirds of previous secondary forest ecosystem. Understorey biomass in the 1-9 years-old of fast growing species were ranges at 0.19-0.95 Mg C.ha-1. Carbon stocks in the litter of 7-years-old sengon re-vegetation area were higher than that of natural forest, because of their supply from litterfall and understorey. Soil organic carbon in re-vegetation areas of 9-years-old Acacia mangium stand was 23.2 Mg.ha-1, almost equal to the value at the former secondary forest (28.5 Mg.ha-1), whereas its value during land clearing just only 4.3 Mg.ha-1. Environmental restoration in open coal mining areas through re-vegetation by fast growing plantation will restore their biomass and carbon stocks, nearly similar to their former secondary forest conditions. © 2016 The Authors.


Bohnert T.,University of Gottingen | Wenzel A.,University of Gottingen | Altenhovel C.,University of Gottingen | Beeretz L.,University of Gottingen | And 4 more authors.
Biological Conservation | Year: 2016

Land-use change is the main driver of biodiversity loss in the tropics worldwide. Lowland rainforest regions in Southeast Asia are experiencing particularly high rates of large-scale conversion of forests and agroforests into monocultural tree plantations including oil palm and rubber with devastating effects on forest-dependent species. Canopy-dwelling organisms such as epiphytes are expected to be particularly susceptible to changes in land use, vegetation structure, and microclimate but the consequences of these changes are only poorly known for this plant group in Southeast Asia. We investigated the diversity of vascular epiphytes in four major land-use systems in Jambi Province (Sumatra, Indonesia). Epiphyte communities were sampled in 120 20 × 20 m plots in Bukit Duabelas National Park (lowland rainforest) and in surrounding jungle rubber agroforests as well as in rubber and oil palm plantations owned by smallholders. At plot level, lowland rainforest, jungle rubber, and oil palm were statistically indistinguishable in terms of richness, diversity, and evenness but had significantly higher values than rubber. Oil palm plantations had the highest epiphyte abundance, but lowest total species number of all systems. Furthermore, oil palm had distinct, fern-dominated epiphyte communities that differed significantly from the other systems. In conclusion, the value of monocultural tree plantations of oil palms and rubber trees for epiphyte conservation is very low. Jungle rubber, an extensively managed yet vanishing system, represents a refuge for epiphytes and could play a vital role in conserving epiphyte diversity, especially of ferns and orchids. Non-orchid angiosperms, however, mainly occurred in forest and are thus most threatened by forest conversion. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd


Dharmaputra O.S.,Seameo Biotrop | Putri A.S.R.,Bogor Agricultural University | Dewi A.U.,Bogor Agricultural University
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2013

Colletotrichum acutatum is a pathogenic fungus causing bitter rot on fruit, including apple. Biological control of post-harvest diseases of fruit has emerged as a promising alternative to chemical applications. The objective of this study was to test the antagonistic potential of mycobiota of apple fruit ('Malang' and 'Manalagi') against C. acutatum. Fruit were collected from several traditional markets and supermarkets in Bogor and Jakarta, and from an orchard in Batu ('Malang'). Test fungi were isolated using a dilution method, followed by a pour-plated method on malt extract agar (MEA) containing chloramphenicol. The test of antagonism was conducted using the direct opposition method on MEA; the pathogenicity of test fungi was done by inoculating fungal isolates onto the two apple cultivars. The potential antagonistic fungus was evaluated by inoculating a 0.1 ml conidial suspension with different concentrations (1 × 106; 2 ×106; 4 × 106; 6 × 106; 8 × 106; 1 × 107 conidia/ml) onto the apples. Forty-nine isolates of test fungi were isolated from the apples. Eight out of 49 test fungal isolates inhibited growth of C. acutatum by more than 50%, and 6 out of 8 fungal isolates prevented disease developing on the inoculated apples. One of the antagonistic fungus, i.e., Pestalotiopsis guepinii with different concentrations of conidial suspensions were not able to control bitter rot effectively. Nevertheless, P. guepinii (4 × 106 conidia/ml) inoculated together with a 0.1-ml conidial suspension of C. acutatum (1 × 106 conidia/ml) inhibited bitter rot by 39.5%. © 2013 ISHS.


Dharmaputra O.S.,Seameo Biotrop | Dharmaputra O.S.,Bogor Agricultural University | Ambarwati S.,Seameo Biotrop | Retnowati I.,Seameo Biotrop | Windyarani A.,Bogor Agricultural University
Biotropia | Year: 2013

The objective of this study was to document the population of A.flavus and aflatoxin B1 content of five processed peanut products collected from different retailers in Kecamatan Bogor Tengah (Subdistrict of Central Bogor), Municipality of Bogor. A total of 129 samples of processed peanut products were collected. The products consisted of roasted nut-in shell peanuts (33 samples), flour-coated peanut kernels (33), siomay sauce (18),pecel/gado-gado sauce (33) and satai sauce (12). Sample size varied from 2000 g for roasted nut-in shell peanuts and flour-coated peanut kernels, to 1500 g for siomay sauce,pecel/gado-gado sauce as well as satai sauce samples. The samples were mixed homogeneously. It was then divided into two parts manually, and then each part was also divided into two parts to obtain working samples to determine A. flavus population, AFB1 content and a reserve sample. Kernels of roasted nut-in shell peanuts and flour-coated peanut kernels were obtained by shelling their skin pods and removing the seed coat and the batter coat of tapioca flour manually, respectively. Aspergillusflavus in peanut processed products was isolated using a serial dilution method, followed by pour plate method on Aspergillus Flavus and Parasiticus Agar (AFPA). AFB1 content was determined using Thin Layer Chromatography method. Two replicates were used for each sample.The results showed that the population of A. flavus in roasted nut- in shell peanuts, flour-coated peanut kernels, siomay sauce,pecel/gado-gado sauce and satai sauce were 0.3,0.1,0.3,13.2 and 0.4 cfu/g (wet basis), respectively. The highest AFB1 content of 43.2 ppb was found in roasted peanut nut-in shell, followed by flour-coated peanut kernels (34.3 ppb), satai sauce (23.2 ppb),pecel/gado-gado sauce (17.1 ppb) and siomay sauce (4.4 ppb).


Dharmaputra O.S.,SEAMEO BIOTROP | Dharmaputra O.S.,Bogor Agricultural University | Ambarwati S.,SEAMEO BIOTROP | Retnowati I.,SEAMEO BIOTROP
Biotropia | Year: 2012

The objectives o f this study were (a) to investigate the effect o f postharvest handling (threshing and storing) methods on the quality of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L) Moench) grains variety Numbu, in terms of the percentages of damaged grains and seed germination, population growth of Sitophilus zeamais, Fusariumproliferatum and F. verticillioides, fumonisin B, and carbohydrate contents, and the percentage of weight loss during storage. The change of moisture contents o f sorghum grains was also recorded. Threshing was conducted using wooden stick and a paddy thresher. Sorghum grains were packed in hermetic plastic bags. The conditions inside of the bags were airtight and normal. Each bag with different conditions inside was infested with 10 pairs of S. zeamais (1-14 days old). Sorghum was stored for one, two and three months under warehouse conditions. The results showed, that the moisture contents o f sorghum were lower than its standard safe moisture content (<14%) during storage. At the beginning of storage, the percentage of damaged grains caused by threshing using wooden stick was higher than that of using a paddy thresher. The increase of percentage o f damaged grains was caused among others by increase S. zeamais population under normal oxygen concentration inside of the bag (about 21%), consequently the percentage of weight loss was also increased. The percentage of seed germination of sorghum threshed using wooden stick was lower than that of threshed using a paddy thresher. The percentage of seed germination decreased with the increase of storage duration. Population of F.proliferatum and F. verticillioides decreased with the increase of storage duration. Fumonisin B1 content of sorghum threshed using wooden stick was higher than that of using a paddy thresher during one, two and three months o f storage. Fumonisin B1 contents were considered low. In general, carbohydrate content of sorghum threshed using either wooden stick or paddy thresher from the beginning up to three months o f storage were not significantly different. Threshing using a paddy thresher was better in comparison to threshing using wooden stick.


Ambarwati S.,SEAMEO BIOTROP | Dharmaputra O.S.,SEAMEO BIOTROP | Dharmaputra O.S.,Bogor Agricultural University | Retnowati I.,SEAMEO BIOTROP
Biotropia | Year: 2011

A research on dietary exposure assessment for aflatoxin B 1 (AFB1) from processed peanut products in Municipality of Bogor was carried out. The objectives of this study were to determine the contents of AFB1 in processed peanut products at retail levels, and to obtain information whether there is a risk to public health caused by the consumption of processed peanut products contaminated by AFB1. Survey of processed peanut product consumption was carried out by interviewing each respondent using a questionnaire of weekly processed peanut product consumption. Sampling of processed peanut products was conducted at the locations where the respondents obtained processed peanut products. The number of roasted peanuts with skin pods, flour-coated peanuts and pecel or gado-gado sauces samples was 33, respectively, while the number of siomay and satai sauces samples was 18 and 12, respectively. The total number of processed peanut product sampleswas 129. AFB1contentwas determined using Thin Layer Chromatography method. Estimation of the dietary exposure assessmentwas determined using the actual survey data consisting of AFB1 content, consumption data and body weight. The highest contaminated sample percentage and mean of AFB1 content was found in roasted peanuts with skin pods i.e. 42% of 33 samples and 43.2 μg/kg, respectively, followed by flour-coated peanuts (30% of 33 samples and 34.3 μg/kg), and pecel or gado-gado (21% of 33 samples and 17.1 μg/kg). Mean of estimated dietary exposure for AFB1 found in children was 15.2 ng kg -1 bw day -1 and 95 th percentile exposure was 38.9 ng kg -1 bw day -1, while in adults 9.0 ng kg -1 bw day -1 and 95 th percentile exposure was 27.0 ng kg -1 bw day -1. The excess cancer risk of AFB1 exposure in Bogor from this study on children and adults was calculated as 193 and 115 cancers/year, respectively.


Pratiwi C.,Bogor Agricultural University | Rahayu W.P.,Bogor Agricultural University | Lioe H.N.,Bogor Agricultural University | Herawati D.,Bogor Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
International Food Research Journal | Year: 2015

Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus) producing aflatoxin frequently contaminates crops such as soybeans. The growth of this mold on soybeans and other foodstuffs is affected by temperature and relative humidity (RH). The aim of this study was to measure the growth of A. flavus BIO 2237 and aflatoxin production at different temperatures and RH. Aspergillus flavus BIO 2237 was isolated from Indonesia origin foodstuffs. Aspergillus flavus BIO 2237 was inoculated in Czapek Dox Agar (CDA) and soybeans for 10 days at a temperature of 20, 30, and 40°C with RH of 70, 80, and 90%. Aflatoxin analysis was conducted using RP-HPLC equipped with fluorescence detector and post column photochemical reactor. The limit of detection (LoD) for aflatoxin of B1, B2, G1, and G2 was 0.45, 0.26, 0.05, and 0.13 ng/mL (ppb), while their limit of quantification (LoQ) was 1.50, 0.88, 0.18 and 0.43 ng/mL (ppb) respectively. The maximum growth for A. flavus BIO 2237 in CDA and soybeans was reached at a temperature of 30°C with RH of 90%, and this was based on the highest diameter of colony and amount of cell mass formed in that condition. The maximum level of aflatoxin in contaminated soybeans was found at 999 ng/g (ppb), and this was produced at the same condition as its fungi's growth. Aspergillus flavus BIO 2237 can not grow as well as produce aflatoxin in soybeans at high temperature (40°C) with low RH (70%). There was a significant difference (sig<0.05) in aflatoxin content (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, and AFG2) between temperature and RH, meanwhile the difference on the growth of A. flavus BIO 2237 in CDA and soybeans caused by RH.


Sukmadjaja D.,Indonesian Center for Agricultural Biotechnology and Genetic Resources | Widhiastuti H.,SEAMEO BIOTROP
Biotropia | Year: 2011

A study on propagation of three superior cassava (Manihot esculenta Crant) varieties i.e. Darul Hidayah, Malang-6 and Adira-4 through tissue culture technique was conducted at the Tissue Culture Lab of SEAMEO BIOTROP, Bogor. The objective of the experiment was to study effect of plant growth regulators on in vitro propagation, which can be used in cassava micropropagation protocol. Plant materials used were auxiliary shoots of a stem node. The experiment consisted of (i) shoot multiplication, (ii) roots induction, and (iii) acclimatization. The multiple shoot regeneration was observed by using Murashige & Skoog (MS) basal media supplemented with 0, 0.1, 1.0 and 5.0 mg/L of benzylaminopurine (BAP) combined with 0.0, 0.1 and 1.0 mg/L of thidiazuron. The root induction was observed by using 0.1 and 1.0 mg/L of IBA and NAA. The resulting plantlets were transplanted into plastic polybags containing soil mixed with organic fertilizer (1:1) covered with plastic sheets and transferred to a greenhouse. The result of the study showed that the highest number of shoots for Darul Hidayah, Malang-6 and Adira-4 varieties were 4.93 shoots treated with BAP 1 mg/L + thidiazuron 0.1 mg/L, 4.20 shoots at BAP media of 1 mg/L, and 7.20 shoots at the media of BAP 1 mg/L + thidiazuron 0.1 mg/L respectively. The highest number of nodes produced was 2.9 nodes for Darul Hidayah at BAP 5 mg/L, 5.13 nodes for Malang-6 at BAP 0.1 mg/L, and 6.18 nodes for Adira-4 at BAP 5 mg/L+thidiazuron 1 mg/L. The utilization of auxin IAA or NAA could induce and accelerate the growth of roots which finally could increase the success of acclimatization process. With an average of four multiplication factors of each culture period, the potency of each cassava shoot propagated through tissue culture could produce around 37 000 plants/year.

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