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Macdonald M.E.,University of Calgary | Macdonald M.E.,Seaman Family Magnetic Resonance Research Center | Frayne R.,University of Calgary | Frayne R.,Seaman Family Magnetic Resonance Research Center
Physiological Measurement | Year: 2015

Phase contrast (PC) magnetic resonance imaging was used to obtain velocity measurements in 30 healthy subjects to provide an assessment of hemodynamic parameters in cerebral vessels. We expect a lower coefficient-of-variation (COV) of the volume flow rate (VFR) compared to peak velocity (vpeak) measurements and the COV to increase in smaller caliber arteries compared to large arteries. PC velocity maps were processed to calculate vpeak and VFR in 26 vessel segments. The mean, standard deviation and COV, of vpeak and VFR in each segment were calculated. A bootstrap-style analysis was used to determine the minimum number of subjects required to accurately represent the population. Significance of vpeak and VFR asymmetry was assessed in 10 vessel pairs. The bootstrap analysis suggested that averaging more than 20 subjects would give consistent results. When averaged over the subjects, vpeak and VFR ranged from 5.2 ± 7.1 cm s-1, 0.41 ± 0.58 ml s-1 (in the anterior communicating artery; mean ± standard deviation) to 73 ± 23 cm s-1, 7.6 ± 1.7 ml s-1 (in the left internal carotid artery), respectively. A tendency for VFR to be higher in the left hemisphere was observed in 88.8% of artery pairs, while the VFR in the right transverse sinus was larger. The VFR COV was larger than vpeak COV in 57.7% of segments, while smaller vessels had higher COV. Significance and potential impact: VFR COV was not generally higher than vpeak COV. COV was higher in smaller vessels as expected. These summarized values provide a base against which vpeak and VFR in various disease states can be compared. © 2015 Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine. Source


MacDonald M.E.,University of Calgary | MacDonald M.E.,Seaman Family Magnetic Resonance Research Center | Dolati P.,Hotchkiss Brain Institute | Dolati P.,Seaman Family Magnetic Resonance Research Center Foothills Medical Center | And 8 more authors.
Radiology Case Reports | Year: 2015

Many risk factors have been proposed in the development of the cerebral aneurysms. Hemodynamics including blood velocity, volume flow rate (VFR), and intravascular pressure are thought to be prognostic indicators of aneurysm development. We hypothesize that treatment of cerebral aneurysm using a flow-diverting stent will bring these hemodynamic parameters closer to those observed on the contralateral side. In the current study, a patient with a giant cerebral aneurysm was studied pre- and postoperatively using phase contrast MRI (PC-MRI) to measure the hemodynamic changes resulting from the deployment of a flow-diverting stent. PC-MRI was used to calculate intravascular pressure, which was compared to more invasive endovascular catheter-derived measurements. After stent placement, the measured VFRs in vessels of the treated hemisphere approached those measured on the contralateral side, and flow symmetry changed from a laterality index of -0.153 to 0.116 in the middle cerebral artery. Pressure estimates derived from the PC-MRI velocity data had an average difference of 6.1% as compared to invasive catheter transducer measurements. PC-MRI can measure the hemodynamic parameters with the same accuracy as invasive methods pre- and postoperatively. © 2015 The Authors. Source


Swailes N.E.,University of Calgary | Swailes N.E.,Seaman Family Magnetic Resonance Research Center | MacDonald M.E.,University of Calgary | MacDonald M.E.,Seaman Family Magnetic Resonance Research Center | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging | Year: 2011

Purpose: To develop an anthropomorphic phantom to simulate heart, lung, and blood motion. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is sensitive to image distortion and artifacts caused by motion. Imaging phantoms are used to test new sequences, but generally, these phantoms lack physiological motion. For the validation of new MR-based endovascular interventional and other techniques, we developed a dynamic motion phantom that is suitable for initial in vitro and more realistic validation studies that should occur before animal experiments. Materials and Methods: An anthropomorphic phantom was constructed to model the thoracic cavity, including respiratory and cardiac motions, and moving blood. Several MRI methods were used to validate the phantom performance: anatomical scanning, rapid temporal imaging, digital subtraction angiography, and endovascular tracking. The quality and nature of the motion artifact in these images were compared with in vivo images. Results: The closed-loop motion phantom correctly represented key features in the thorax, was MR-compatible, and was able to reproduce similar motion artifacts and effects as seen in in vivo images. The phantom provided enough physiological realism that it was able to ensure a suitable challenge in an in vitro catheter tracking experiment. Conclusion: A phantom was created and used for testing interventional catheter guiding. The images produced had similar qualities to those found in vivo. This phantom had a high degree of appropriate anthropomorphic and physiological qualities. Ethically, use of this phantom is highly appropriate when first testing new MRI techniques prior to conducting animal studies. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Source


MacDonald M.E.,University of Calgary | MacDonald M.E.,Seaman Family Magnetic Resonance Research Center | Stafford R.B.,University of Calgary | Stafford R.B.,Seaman Family Magnetic Resonance Research Center | And 8 more authors.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging | Year: 2013

Background: Using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for navigating catheters has several advantages when compared with the current "gold standard" modality of X-ray imaging. A significant drawback to interventional MR is inferior temporal and spatial resolutions, as high spatial resolution images cannot be collected and displayed at rates equal to X-ray imaging. In particular, passive MR catheter tracking experiments that use positive contrast mechanisms have poor temporal imaging rates and signal-to-noise ratio. As a result, with passive methods, it is often difficult to reconstruct motion artifact-free tracking images from areas with motion, such as the thoracic cavity. Methods: In this study, several accelerated MR acquisition strategies, including parallel imaging and compressed sensing (CS), were evaluated to determine which method is most effective at improving the frame rate and passive detection of catheters in regions of physiological motion. Device navigation was performed both in vitro, through the aortic arch of an anthropomorphic chest phantom, and in vivo from the femoral artery, up the descending aorta into the supra-aortic branching vessels in canines. Results and Discussion: The different parallel imaging methods produced images of low quality. CS with a two-fold acceleration was found to be the most effective method for generating tracking images, improving the image frame rate to 5.2 Hz, while maintaining a relatively high in-plane resolution. Using CS, motion artifact was decreased and the catheters were visualized with good conspicuity near the heart. Conclusions: The improvement in the imaging frame rate by image acceleration was sufficient to overcome motion artifacts and to better visualize catheters in the thoracic cavity with passive tracking. CS preformed best at tracking. Navigation with passive MR catheter tracking was demonstrated from the femoral artery to the carotid artery in canines. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source

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