Fayetteville, AR, United States

Sea Star International, Llc

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Adams J.P.,Louisiana Tech University | Lingbeck J.M.,Sea Star International, Llc | Martin E.M.,University of Arkansas
IForest | Year: 2015

Sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) is the only species of its genus in the Western hemisphere. The species is a relatively early successional species with wide seed dispersal, fast growth and is considered one of the most adaptable tree species in North America, growing across a wide range of soil types, altitudes, and hydrologic conditions. This species has routinely been considered a lesser desired species by many forest managers trying to grow tree plantations or even in natural stands because the species tends to rapidly invade and dominate a site. However, because of sweetgum’s adaptability, ease of propagation and field planting, and fast growth rate, the tending of sweetgum as a potential crop for improved markets has been reinvigorated. Managing sweetgum also opens the possibility of development of new products and markets that supplement the traditional markets and can produce further value-added products. Increasingly, sweetgum is not viewed with as much antipathy amongst foresters and its potential as valuable resources is being rediscovered. © SISEF.


Lingbeck J.M.,Sea Star International, Llc | Cordero P.,University of Arkansas | O'Bryan C.A.,University of Arkansas | Johnson M.G.,University of Arkansas | And 4 more authors.
Meat Science | Year: 2014

The smoking of foods, especially meats, has been used as a preservation technique for centuries. Today, smoking methods often involve the use of wood smoke condensates, commonly known as liquid smoke. Liquid smoke is produced by condensing wood smoke created by the pyrolysis of sawdust or wood chips followed by removal of the carcinogenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The main products of wood pyrolysis are phenols, carbonyls and organic acids which are responsible for the flavor, color and antimicrobial properties of liquid smoke. Several common food-borne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, pathogenic Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus have shown sensitivity to liquid smoke in vitro and in food systems. Therefore liquid smoke has potential for use as an all-natural antimicrobial in commercial applications where smoke flavor is desired. This review will cover the application and effectiveness of liquid smoke and fractions of liquid smoke as an all-natural food preservative. This review will be valuable for the industrial and research communities in the food science and technology areas. © 2014.


Van Loo E.J.,University of Arkansas | Van Loo E.J.,Sea Star International, Llc | Van Loo E.J.,Ghent University | Babu D.,University of Arkansas | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Food Protection | Year: 2012

Liquid smoke extracts have traditionally been used as flavoring agents, are known to possess antioxidant properties, and serve as natural alternatives to conventional antimicrobials. The antimicrobial efficacies of commercial liquid smoke samples may vary depending on their source and composition and the methods used to extract and concentrate the smoke. We investigated the MICs of eight commercial liquid smoke samples against Salmonella Enteritidis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli. The commercial liquid smoke samples purchased were supplied by the manufacturer as water-based or concentrated extracts of smoke from different wood sources. The MICs of the commercial smokes to inhibit the growth of foodborne pathogens ranged from 0.5 to 6.0% for E. coli, 0.5 to 8.0% for Salmonella, and 0.38 to 6% for S. aureus. The MIC for each liquid smoke sample was similar in its effect on both E. coli and Salmonella. Solvent-extracted antimicrobials prepared using pecan shells displayed significant differences between their inhibitory concentrations depending on the type of solvent used for extraction. The results indicated that the liquid smoke samples tested in this study could serve as effective natural antimicrobials and that their inhibitory effects depended more on the solvents used for extraction than the wood source. © International Association for Food Protection.


Grant
Agency: Department of Agriculture | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 450.00K | Year: 2012

This is a critical crossroads for the poultry industry with a majority of consumers demanding minimal or chemical free foods and the ever present threat of foodborne illness from Salmonella and Listeria associated with raw and ready-to-eat (RTE) poultry products. As a potential solution, we have demonstrated the effectiveness of novel, all natural antimicrobials. This proposed Phase II research will optimize combinations of antimicrobials that will provide additional hurdles of protection from Listeria and Salmonella to minimize the risk of foodborne illness for poultry. This research will minimize the growth of spoilage organisms to provide a much needed increase in shelf-life for these high-value products, while maintaining the quality of the organic foods. Specific details are contained in the Commercialization Plan. This proposal will add-value to agricultural wastes currently being burned as cheap fuel sources by upgrading thes waste product to food grade antimicrobials. We will do this in a sustainable manner that minimizes or eliminates most of the liquid wastes typically associated with biological extraction methods.


Grant
Agency: Department of Agriculture | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 99.51K | Year: 2012

Despite concerted efforts on both the part of the food industry and Federal regulators, already in 2011 there have been Salmonella foodborne illnesses in 31 U.S. states. Salmonella is a leading cause of foodborne illness. It is responsible each year for an estimated 1 million illnesses, 19,336 hospitalizations and 378 deaths. Salmonella associated outbreaks are primarily related to poultry meat and eggs. Despite the effort to control pathogenic Salmonella during poultry processing, the number of illnesses has not declined. Therefore, the control of pathogenic Salmonella has been a top research priority of USDA, which in 2010 published even tighter performance standards for controlling Salmonella in poultry products. The U.S. poultry industry has been producing broiler meat and egg products valued at $45 billion and $6.52 billion respectively in 2010. Arkansas has been consistently one of the top two states in the U.S. for poultry and egg production, valued at $3.7 billion. To protect consumers? health, decrease bird morbidity, and prevent product recalls, there is a widespread interest by the poultry industry in the development and verification of an effective Salmonella vaccination. There are currently competing Salmonella vaccines in the market, but all have serious efficacy, risk and cost drawbacks that are preventing widespread industry adoption. To be a commercial success, our new vaccine must compete in the market place that already contains competitive Salmonella vaccines. We will overcome the limitations of the current vaccines, because our new vaccine will provide: - Greater Efficacy: Using an avirulent, live vaccine is superior to many of the current vaccines that use dead Salmonella which provide only short-lived protection and are less effective in reducing horizontal (bird to bird) Salmonella transmission. - Improved Price Point: Our small company will have lower overhead than many commercial vaccines producers because the owners understand the limitations of the price-sensitive, commodity, poultry broiler and egg industries and embrace the marketing objectives as well as the science involved in the project. - Minimal Risk of Reversion: We will use and verify that our vaccine, a double deletion Salmonella strain, will not revert back to virulent, pathogenic Salmonella. - Controlled Retention: Our feasibility tests for Phase I will demonstrate that our avirulent Salmonella strain will ?be there when needed? to protect the newly hatched chick when it is most vulnerable--then clear out of its system ahead of slaughter for broilers or egg production for layers. This minimizes the risk of the birds testing ?false-positive? for pathogenic Salmonella.


Grant
Agency: Department of Agriculture | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 100.00K | Year: 2013

This proposal will serve as a pilot project for poor, rural, Southern counties with rich forestry resources. Arkansas and surrounding states have some of the highest poverty rates in the nation. Arkansas 19 million acres of forests represent more than half of the total land mass of this state. This proposal is aimed at developing processing technologies that will add value to existing paper mill waste by extracting high value phytochemicals from forestry tree bark. The development of this technology will eventually result in high paying jobs created in rural communities experiencing economic downturns due to the housing industry collapse. As part of this pilot demonstration project, we will prepare forestry co-products using our proprietary extraction technology and identify the principal phytochemicals. We will use the high-throughput screening techniques we have developed to evaluate the biological activity of these phytochemicals. We will characterize the active ingredients and optimize the extraction, stability and reproducibility of producing phytochemicals with high-levels of biological activity. This Phase I proposal will establish the feasibility of efficiently extracting these phytochemicals and provide a comparison for their activity based on potentially competing commercial products already in the market.


Grant
Agency: Department of Agriculture | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 90.00K | Year: 2010

We propose to improve the sustainability and profitability of small organic pecan farmers by developing an agricultural enterprise from their pecan shell waste that will produce organic, value-added, specialty antimicrobials--specifically to address the needs of organic poultry industry. Liquid smoke generated from organic pecan shells represents the ideal combination of a highly effective organic antimicrobial that can be produced in large quantities and low cost. It can be used not only reduce/eliminate food pathogens but, just as importantly, safely extend the shelf life of fresh organic products, such as poultry. Our long-term goal for this pilot regional project is to build a small business that engages a network of small farms, including organic pecan growers, small organic poultry processors, and organic retailers that can serve as a successful economic blueprint for similar rural small farmer communities across the nation.


PubMed | Sea Star International, Llc, University of Arkansas at Monticello and University of Arkansas
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Pharmacognosy reviews | Year: 2015

Sweetgum trees are large, deciduous trees found in Asia and North America. Sweetgum trees are important resources for medicinal and other beneficial compounds. Many of the medicinal properties of sweetgum are derived from the resinous sap that exudes when the outer bark of the tree has been damaged. The sap, known as storax, has been used for centuries to treat common ailments such as skin problems, coughs, and ulcers. More recently, storax has proven to be a strong antimicrobial agent even against multidrug resistant bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. In addition to the sap, the leaves, bark, and seeds of sweetgum also possess beneficial compounds such as shikimic acid, a precursor to the production of oseltamivir phosphate, the active ingredient in Tamiflu-an antiviral drug effective against several influenza viruses. Other extracts derived from sweetgum trees have shown potential as antioxidants, anti-inflammatory agents, and chemopreventive agents. The compounds found in the extracts derived from sweetgum sap suppress hypertension in mice. Extracts from sweetgum seeds have anticonvulsant effects, which may make them suitable in the treatment of epilepsy. In addition to the potential medicinal uses of sweetgum extracts, the extracts of the sap possess antifungal activity against various phytopathogenic fungi and have been effective treatments for reducing nematodes and the yellow mosquito, Aedes aegypti, populations thus highlighting the potential of these extracts as environment-friendly pesticides and antifungal agents. The list of value-added products derived from sweetgum trees can be increased by continued research of this abundantly occurring tree.


PubMed | Sea Star International, Llc and University of Arkansas
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Poultry science | Year: 2015

Antimicrobial agents are added to poultry products after slaughter to prevent the growth of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms and to extend the shelf-life of these products. Antimicrobials can be either natural or chemical, which may affect the sensory attributes at elevated concentrations, such as surface color, odor, flavor, taste, and texture of the poultry products. Thus, when selecting antimicrobials for use in poultry processing, it is vital to consider the antimicrobial-induced changes in sensory aspects from the consumers perspectives. In spite of its importance, there has been no systematic review on the influences of antimicrobials on sensory aspects of poultry products. This paper reviews the major antimicrobial agents used in the poultry processing industry and their effects on sensory aspects of the poultry products.


PubMed | Sea Star International, Llc and University of Arkansas
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Meat science | Year: 2014

The smoking of foods, especially meats, has been used as a preservation technique for centuries. Today, smoking methods often involve the use of wood smoke condensates, commonly known as liquid smoke. Liquid smoke is produced by condensing wood smoke created by the pyrolysis of sawdust or wood chips followed by removal of the carcinogenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The main products of wood pyrolysis are phenols, carbonyls and organic acids which are responsible for the flavor, color and antimicrobial properties of liquid smoke. Several common food-borne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, pathogenic Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus have shown sensitivity to liquid smoke in vitro and in food systems. Therefore liquid smoke has potential for use as an all-natural antimicrobial in commercial applications where smoke flavor is desired. This review will cover the application and effectiveness of liquid smoke and fractions of liquid smoke as an all-natural food preservative. This review will be valuable for the industrial and research communities in the food science and technology areas.

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