Sea Research Foundation Inc.

Mystic, CT, United States

Sea Research Foundation Inc.

Mystic, CT, United States
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Hedberg G.E.,San Francisco Zoological Gardens | Derocher A.E.,University of Alberta | Andersen M.,Norwegian Polar Institute | Rogers Q.R.,University of California at Davis | And 5 more authors.
Zoo Biology | Year: 2011

The goals of this study were to have an improved understanding of milk composition and to help create a suitable milk formula for cubs raised in captivity. Milk samples were evaluated for fat, fatty acids, carbohydrate, vitamin D 3, 25(OH)D 3, vitamin A (retinol), vitamin E (α-tocopherol), protein, and amino acids. Total lipids in milk did not differ for cubs (mean ± SEM = 26.60 ± 1.88g/100ml vs. yearlings 27.80 ± 2.20g/100ml). Milk lipids were of 23.6% saturated fatty acid for cubs and 22.4% for yearlings. Milk consumed by cubs and yearlings contained 43.8 and 42.0% mono-unsaturated fatty acids and 23.4 and 21.9% polyunsaturated fatty acids, respectively. Carbohydrate content was higher in milk for cubs (4.60 ± 0.64g/100ml) than for yearlings (2.60 ± 0.40g/100ml). Vitamin D 3 concentration of milk was 18.40 ± 5.00ng/ml in early lactation compared with 7.60 ± 2.00ng/ml for mid-lactation. 25(OH)D 3 was lower in milk consumed by cubs (162.00 ± 6.70pg/ml) than in milk consumed by yearlings (205.00 ± 45.70pg/ml). Vitamin A concentrations were 0.06 ± 0.01 and 0.03 ± 0.01μg/ml for cubs and yearlings, respectively. Vitamin E was higher in milk consumed by cubs (20.16 ± 4.46μg/ml) than by yearlings (7.30 ± 1.50μg/ml). Protein content did not differ in milk available to cubs (11.40 ± 0.80g/100ml compared with milk for yearlings 11.80 ± 0.40g/100ml). Taurine was the most abundant free amino acid at 3,165.90 ± 192.90nmol/ml (0.04% as fed basis). © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Erlacher-Reid C.,Sea Research Foundation Incorporated | Erlacher-Reid C.,University of Florida | Tuttle A.D.,Sea Research Foundation Incorporated | Frasca Jr. S.,University of Connecticut
Journal of Aquatic Animal Health | Year: 2012

An aquarium-maintained male California moray Gymnothorax mordax had a symmetrical enlargement of the soft tissues of the head dorsal to the cranium for 2 years prior to its death. This individual was anesthetized for radiographic and ultrasonographic examination of the lesion, and blood was collected for plasma biochemical analytes and lipid profiles. Radiographs and ultrasound of the lesion demonstrated a symmetrical and homogeneous soft tissue density that was consistent with adipose tissue. Plasma cholesterol and triglyceride values appeared elevated; therefore, the animal's diet was amended to decrease fat consumption. Triglyceride values decreased after dietary changes were made; however, values for cholesterol, high-density lipoproteins, and lowdensity lipoproteins fluctuated but remained largely unchanged. Histopathological assessment of the lesion revealed localized xanthogranulomatous inflammation of hypodermal adipose tissue. The etiology of the lesion in this animal was never determined. This paper describes the first documented case of localized xanthogranulomatous panniculitis in a California moray and demonstrates the need for additional research on specific dietary requirements, species-specific physiological differences, and lesions involving the adipose tissue of morays in comparison with other teleost species. © American Fisheries Society 2012.


Huber D.R.,The University of Tampa | Neveu D.E.,The University of Tampa | Neveu D.E.,University of South Florida | Stinson C.M.,The University of Tampa | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Experimental Biology | Year: 2013

Semi-fossorial ground squirrels face challenges to respiratory gas transport associated with the chronic hypoxia and hypercapnia of underground burrows, and such challenges are compounded in species that are native to high altitude. During hibernation, such species must also contend with vicissitudes of blood gas concentrations and plasma pH caused by episodic breathing. Here, we report an analysis of hemoglobin (Hb) function in six species of marmotine ground squirrels with different altitudinal distributions. Regardless of their native altitude, all species have high Hb-O2 affinities, mainly due to suppressed sensitivities to allosteric effectors [2,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG) and chloride ions]. This suppressed anion sensitivity is surprising given that all canonical anion-binding sites are conserved. Two sciurid species, the golden-mantled and thirteen-lined ground squirrel, have Hb-O2 affinities that are characterized by high pH sensitivity and low thermal sensitivity relative to the Hbs of humans and other mammals. The pronounced Bohr effect is surprising in light of highly unusual amino acid substitutions at the C-termini that are known to abolish the Bohr effect in human HbA. Taken together, the high O2 affinity of sciurid Hbs suggests an enhanced capacity for pulmonary O2 loading under hypoxic and hypercapnic conditions, while the large Bohr effect should help to ensure efficient O 2 unloading in tissue capillaries. In spite of the relatively low thermal sensitivities of the sciurid Hbs, our results indicate that the effect of hypothermia on Hb oxygenation is the main factor contributing to the increased blood-O2 affinity in hibernating ground squirrels. © 2013. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.


PubMed | Sea Research Foundation Incorporated
Type: Case Reports | Journal: Journal of aquatic animal health | Year: 2012

An aquarium-maintained male California moray Gymnothorax mordax had a symmetrical enlargement of the soft tissues of the head dorsal to the cranium for 2 years prior to its death. This individual was anesthetized for radiographic and ultrasonographic examination of the lesion, and blood was collected for plasma biochemical analytes and lipid profiles. Radiographs and ultrasound of the lesion demonstrated a symmetrical and homogeneous soft tissue density that was consistent with adipose tissue. Plasma cholesterol and triglyceride values appeared elevated; therefore, the animals diet was amended to decrease fat consumption. Triglyceride values decreased after dietary changes were made; however, values for cholesterol, high-density lipoproteins, and low-density lipoproteins fluctuated but remained largely unchanged. Histopathological assessment of the lesion revealed localized xanthogranulomatous inflammation of hypodermal adipose tissue. The etiology of the lesion in this animal was never determined. This paper describes the first documented case of localized xanthogranulomatous panniculitis in a California moray and demonstrates the need for additional research on specific dietary requirements, species-specific physiological differences, and lesions involving the adipose tissue of morays in comparison with other teleost species.

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