Time filter

Source Type

Batcagan-Abueg A.P.M.,National University of Singapore | Lee J.J.,National University of Singapore | Chan P.,Sea For Life | Rebello S.A.,National University of Singapore | Amarra M.S.V.,Sea For Life
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2013

Increased dietary sodium intake is a modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The monitoring of population sodium intake is a key part of any salt reduction intervention. However, the extent and methods used for assessment of sodium intake in Southeast Asia is currently unclear. This paper provides a narrative synthesis of the best available evidence regarding levels of sodium intake in six Southeast Asian countries: Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam, and describes salt reduction measures being undertaken in these countries. Electronic databases were screened to identify relevant articles for inclusion up to 29 February 2012. Reference lists of included studies and conference proceedings were also examined. Local experts and researchers in nutrition and public health were consulted. Quality of studies was assessed using a modified version of the Downs and Black Checklist. Twenty-five studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were included in this review. Full texts of 19 studies including government reports were retrieved, with most studies being of good quality. Insufficient evidence exists regarding salt intakes in Southeast Asia. Dietary data suggest that sodium intake in most SEA countries exceeded the WHO recommendation of 2 g/day. Studies are needed that estimate sodium intake using the gold standard 24-hour urinary sodium excretion. The greatest proportion of dietary sodium came from added salt and sauces. Data on children were limited. The six countries had salt reduction initiatives that differed in specificity and extent, with greater emphasis on consumer education.


Horning M.,Oregon State University | Mellish J.-A.E.,Sea For Life | Mellish J.-A.E.,University of Alaska Fairbanks
Endangered Species Research | Year: 2010

To directly determine mortality and predation in the endangered western Steller sea lion Eumetopias jubatus, we deployed implanted, satellite-linked post-mortem data transmitters in 21 juveniles. Data recovered from 4 of 5 detected mortalities exhibited precipitous drops in ambient temperatures followed by immediate onset of transmissions (N = 3), or gradual cooling and delayed transmissions (N = 1). Precipitous drop data sets were classified as acute death at sea by trauma. A model to estimate algor mortis (body cooling) as a function of mass and ambient conditions was validated through simulations on 4 carcasses. Model outputs suggest that cooling rate masses can be qualitatively distinguished if well outside the prediction uncertainties. The observed gradual cooling rate was best described by a modeled mass one-sixth the animal's mass at release, supporting the classification of the fourth event as acute death at sea by trauma. This suggests that at least 4 in 5 detected mortalities likely represent acute deaths at sea, probably due to predation. We conclude that precipitous drop events with immediate transmissions can be classified as acute death likely by predation, but gradual cooling events with delayed transmission should be reviewed on a case-by-case basis. In 3 cases that provided both ante-mortem and post-mortem locations from external and implanted transmitters, respectively, these differed by less than 17 km, illustrating that this technique provides spatially explicit data of predation on individual sea lions. © Inter-Research 2009.


Horning M.,Oregon State University | Mellish J.-A.E.,Sea For Life | Mellish J.-A.E.,University of Alaska Fairbanks
Fishery Bulletin | Year: 2014

Temperature data received post mortem in 2008–13 from 15 of 36 juvenile Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) that had been surgically implanted in 2005–11 with dual life history transmitters (LHX tags) indicated that all 15 animals died by predation. In 3 of those 15 cases, at least 1 of the 2 LHX tags was ingested by a cold-blooded predator, and those tags recorded, immediately after the sea lion’s death, temperatures that corresponded to deepwater values. These tags were regurgitated or passed 5–11 days later by predators. Once they sensed light and air, the tags commenced transmissions as they floated at the ocean surface, reporting temperatures that corresponded to regional sea-surface estimates. The circumstances related to the tag in a fourth case were ambiguous. In the remaining 11 cases, tags sensed light and air immediately after the sea lion’s death and reported temperatures that corresponded to estimates of regional sea-surface temperatures. In these 11 cases, circumstances did not allow for inferences on the species of predator. Among reported poikilotherm predators of Steller sea lions, only the Pacific sleeper shark (Somniosus pacificus) is known to have body core temperatures that are near ambient. The data from this study indicate that Pacific sleeper sharks need to be considered as a possible source of mortality of juvenile Steller sea lions in the region of the Gulf of Alaska. © 2014, National Marine Fisheries Service. All rights reserved.


Butler M.W.,Boise State University | Butler M.W.,Arizona State University | Leppert L.L.,Sea For Life | Leppert L.L.,National Wildlife Health Center | Dufty Jr. A.M.,Arizona State University
Physiological and Biochemical Zoology | Year: 2010

Stressors encountered during avian development may affect an individual's phenotype, including immunocompetence, growth, and feather quality. We examined effects of simulated chronic low-level stress on American kestrel (Falco sparverius) nestlings. Continuous release of corticosterone, a hormone involved in the stress response, can model chronic stress in birds. We implanted 13-d-old males with either corticosterone-filled implants or shams and measured their growth, immune function, and feather coloration.We found no significant differences between groups at the end of the weeklong exposure period in morphometrics (mass, tarsus, wing length, and asymmetry), immunocompetence (cutaneous immunity, heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, and humoral immunity), or feather coloration. One week subsequent to implant removal, however, differences were detected. Sham-implanted birds had significantly longer wings and a reduced level of cutaneous immune function compared with those of birds given corticosterone-filled implants. Therefore, increases of only 2 ng/mL in basal corticosterone titer can have small but measurable effects on subsequent avian development. © 2010 by The University of Chicago.


Fukuda M.,Sea For Life
Journal of the Yamashina Institute for Ornithology | Year: 2013

Black-tailed Gulls Larus crassirostris have a black band on the upper tail. I measured the length from the tip of the tail to the outermost edge of the black band (white fringe on tail edge) of 22 captive individuals in the Ueno Zoological Gardens. The length of the white fringe increased in relation to the age of each individual. Therefore, it was suggested that the age of Black-tailed Gulls can be determined by the length of the white fringe until at least four or five years of age. © Yamashina Institute for Ornithology.


Trademark
Sea For Life | Date: 2011-03-16

Natural herbal supplements.


Trademark
Sea For Life | Date: 2011-01-03

Clothing, namely, bathing suits; beachwear; belts; cloth bibs for babies; underwear; sweaters; Halloween costumes; dresses; gloves; hosiery; infant wear; jackets; mittens; pajamas; pants; sweat pants; sweat shirts; shirts; shorts; infant sleepers; socks; T-shirts; tank tops; tights; vests; jerseys; scarves; neckwear; robes; sleepwear; night gowns; headbands; wrist bands; skirts; coats; leotards; leg warmers; stockings; pantyhose; rainwear; headwear; caps; footwear, namely, athletic shoes; slippers; boots; sandals. Restaurant, cafe, cafeteria, and snack-bar services.


Trademark
Sea For Life | Date: 2012-12-13

Dietary and nutritional supplements.


Trademark
Sea For Life | Date: 2011-08-24

Dietary supplements.


Loading Sea For Life collaborators
Loading Sea For Life collaborators