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San Diego, CA, United States

The Scripps Research Institute is a nonprofit American medical research facility that focuses on research and education in the biomedical science. Headquartered in San Diego, California with a sister facility in Jupiter, Florida, the institute is home to 3,000 scientists, technicians, graduate students, and administrative and other staff, making it among the largest private, non-profit biomedical research organizations in the world. Wikipedia.

Dyson H.J.,Scripps Research Institute
Quarterly Reviews of Biophysics | Year: 2011

Proteins provide much of the scaffolding for life, as well as undertaking a variety of essential catalytic reactions. These characteristic functions have led us to presuppose that proteins are in general functional only when well structured and correctly folded. As we begin to explore the repertoire of possible protein sequences inherent in the human and other genomes, two stark facts that belie this supposition become clear: firstly, the number of apparent open reading frames in the human genome is significantly smaller than appears to be necessary to code for all of the diverse proteins in higher organisms, and secondly that a significant proportion of the protein sequences that would be coded by the genome would not be expected to form stable three-dimensional (3D) structures. Clearly the genome must include coding for a multitude of alternative forms of proteins, some of which may be partly or fully disordered or incompletely structured in their functional states. At the same time as this likelihood was recognized, experimental studies also began to uncover examples of important protein molecules and domains that were incompletely structured or completely disordered in solution, yet remained perfectly functional. In the ensuing years, we have seen an explosion of experimental and genome-annotation studies that have mapped the extent of the intrinsic disorder phenomenon and explored the possible biological rationales for its widespread occurrence. Answers to the question 'why would a particular domain need to be unstructured?' are as varied as the systems where such domains are found. This review provides a survey of recent new directions in this field, and includes an evaluation of the role not only of intrinsically disordered proteins but also of partially structured and highly dynamic members of the disorder-order continuum. © 2011 Cambridge University Press.

Mousseau G.,Scripps Research Institute
Cell host & microbe | Year: 2012

The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV) Tat protein, a potent activator of HIV gene expression, is essential for integrated viral genome expression and represents a potential antiviral target. Tat binds the 5'-terminal region of HIV mRNA's stem-bulge-loop structure, the transactivation-responsive (TAR) element, to activate transcription. We find that didehydro-Cortistatin A (dCA), an analog of a natural steroidal alkaloid from a marine sponge, inhibits Tat-mediated transactivation of the integrated provirus by binding specifically to the TAR-binding domain of Tat. Working at subnanomolar concentrations, dCA reduces Tat-mediated transcriptional initiation/elongation from the viral promoter to inhibit HIV-1 and HIV-2 replication in acutely and chronically infected cells. Importantly, dCA abrogates spontaneous viral particle release from CD4(+)T cells from virally suppressed subjects on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Thus, dCA defines a unique class of anti-HIV drugs that may inhibit viral production from stable reservoirs and reduce residual viremia during HAART. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Vogt P.K.,Scripps Research Institute
Nature Reviews Cancer | Year: 2012

Retroviruses are the original source of oncogenes. The discovery and characterization of these genes was made possible by the introduction of quantitative cell biological and molecular techniques for the study of tumour viruses. Key features of all retroviral oncogenes were first identified in src, the oncogene of Rous sarcoma virus. These include non-involvement in viral replication, coding for a single protein and cellular origin. The MYC, RAS and ERBB oncogenes quickly followed SRC, and these together with PI3K are now recognized as crucial driving forces in human cancer. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Karbstein K.,Scripps Research Institute
Trends in Cell Biology | Year: 2013

Protein synthesis on ribosomes is carefully quality-controlled to ensure the faithful transmission of genetic information from mRNA to protein. Many of these mechanisms rely on communication between distant sites on the ribosomes, and thus on the integrity of the ribosome structure. Furthermore, haploinsufficiency of ribosomal proteins, which increases the chances of forming incompletely assembled ribosomes, can predispose to cancer. Finally, release of inactive ribosomes into the translating pool will lead to their degradation together with the degradation of the bound mRNA. Together, these findings suggest that quality control mechanisms must be in place to survey nascent ribosomes and ensure their functionality. This review gives an account of these mechanisms as currently known. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

The goal of this study was to assess the offset of the antiplatelet effects of prasugrel and clopidogrel. Guidelines recommend discontinuing clopidogrel at least 5 days and prasugrel at least 7 days before surgery. The pharmacodynamic basis for these recommendations is limited. Aspirin-treated patients with coronary artery disease were randomly assigned to either prasugrel 10 mg or clopidogrel 75 mg daily for 7 days. Platelet reactivity was measured before study drug administration and for up to 12 days during washout. The primary endpoint was the cumulative proportion of patients returning to baseline reactivity after study drug discontinuation. A total of 56 patients were randomized; 54 were eligible for analysis. Platelet reactivity was lower 24 h after the last dose of prasugrel compared with clopidogrel. After prasugrel, ≥75% of patients returned to baseline reactivity by washout day 7 compared with day 5 after clopidogrel. Recovery time was dependent on the level of platelet reactivity before study drug exposure and the initial degree of platelet inhibition after study drug discontinuation but not on treatment assignment. Recovery time after thienopyridine discontinuation depends on the magnitude of on-treatment platelet inhibition, resulting, on average, in a more delayed recovery with prasugrel compared with clopidogrel. The offset of prasugrel was consistent with current guidelines regarding the recommended waiting period for surgery after discontinuation. (Prasugrel/Clopidogrel Maintenance Dose Washout Study; NCT01014624). Copyright © 2012 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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