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Chuncheon, South Korea

Mao H.,Fabrus LLC | Graziano J.J.,Fabrus LLC | Chase T.M.A.,Fabrus LLC | Bentley C.A.,Fabrus LLC | And 6 more authors.
Nature Biotechnology

Antibody discovery typically uses hybridoma- or display-based selection approaches, which lack the advantages of directly screening spatially addressed compound libraries as in small-molecule discovery. Here we apply the latter strategy to antibody discovery, using a library of ĝ̂1/410,000 human germline antibody Fabs created by de novo DNA synthesis and automated protein expression and purification. In multiplexed screening assays, we obtained specific hits against seven of nine antigens. Using sequence-activity relationships and iterative mutagenesis, we optimized the binding affinities of two hits to the low nanomolar range. The matured Fabs showed full and partial antagonism activities in cell-based assays. Thus, protein drug leads can be discovered using surprisingly small libraries of proteins with known sequences, questioning the requirement for billions of members in an antibody discovery library. This methodology also provides sequence, expression and specificity information at the first step of the discovery process, and could enable novel antibody discovery in functional screens. © 2010 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Zhang H.,Scripps Research Institute | Yea K.,Scripps Korea Antibody Institute | Xie J.,Scripps Research Institute | Ruiz D.,Scripps Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Chemistry and Biology

We describe a system for direct selection of antibodies that are receptor agonists. Combinatorial antibody libraries in lentiviruses are used to infect eukaryotic cells that contain a fluorescent reporter system coupled to the receptor for which receptor agonist antibodies are sought. In this embodiment of the method, very large numbers of candidate antibodies expressing lentivirus and eukaryotic reporter cells are packaged together in a format where each is capable of replication, thereby forging a direct link between genotype and phenotype. Following infection, cells that fluoresce are sorted and the integrated genes encoding the agonist antibodies recovered. We validated the system by illustrating its ability to generate rapidly potent antibody agonists that are complete thrombopoietin phenocopies. The system should be generalizable to any pathway where its activation can be linked to production of a selectable phenotype. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Kim M.,Seoul National University | Yoon S.,Seoul National University | Lee S.,Scripps Korea Antibody Institute | Ha S.A.,Catholic University of Korea | And 3 more authors.

Gremlin-1, a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) antagonist, is overexpressed in various cancerous tissues but its role in carcinogenesis has not been established. Here, we report that gremlin-1 binds various cancer cell lines and this interaction is inhibited by our newly developed gremlin-1 antibody, GRE1. Gremlin-1 binding to cancer cells was unaffected by the presence of BMP-2, BMP-4, and BMP-7. In addition, the binding was independent of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR2) expression on the cell surface. Addition of gremlin-1 to A549 cells induced a fibroblast-like morphology and decreased E-cadherin expression. In a scratch wound healing assay, A549 cells incubated with gremlin-1 or transfected with gremlin-1 showed increased migration, which was inhibited in the presence of the GRE1 antibody. Gremlin-1 transfected A549 cells also exhibited increased invasiveness as well as an increased growth rate. These effects were also inhibited by the addition of the GRE1 antibody. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that gremlin-1 directly interacts with cancer cells in a BMP- and VEGFR2-independent manner and can induce cell migration, invasion, and proliferation. © 2012 Kim et al. Source

Yu X.,University of Oxford | Baruah K.,University of Oxford | Harvey D.J.,University of Oxford | Vasiljevic S.,University of Oxford | And 6 more authors.
Journal of the American Chemical Society

Biologically active conformations of the IgG1 Fc homodimer are maintained by multiple hydrophobic interactions between the protein surface and the N-glycan. The Fc glycan modulates biological effector functions, including antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) which is mediated in part through the activatory Fc receptor, FcγRIIIA. Consistent with previous reports, we found that site-directed mutations disrupting the protein-carbohydrate interface (F241A, F243A, V262E, and V264E) increased galactosylation and sialylation of the Fc and, concomitantly, reduced the affinity for FcγRIIIA. We rationalized this effect by crystallographic analysis of the IgG1 Fc F241A mutant, determined here to a resolution of 1.9 Å, which revealed localized destabilization of this glycan-protein interface. Given that sialylation of Fc glycans decreases ADCC, one explanation for the effect of these mutants on FcγRIIIA binding is their increased sialylation. However, a glycan-engineered IgG1 with hypergalactosylated and hypersialylated glycans exhibited unchanged binding affinity to FcγRIIIA. Moreover, when we expressed these mutants as a chemically uniform (Man 5GlcNAc2) glycoform, the individual effect of each mutation on FcγRIIIA affinity was preserved. This effect was broadly recapitulated for other Fc receptors (FcγRI, FcγRIIA, FcγRIIB, and FcγRIIIB). These data indicate that destabilization of the glycan-protein interactions, rather than increased galactosylation and sialylation, modifies the Fc conformation(s) relevant for FcγR binding. Engineering of the protein-carbohydrate interface thus provides an independent parameter in the engineering of Fc effector functions and a route to the synthesis of new classes of Fc domain with novel combinations of affinities for activatory and inhibitory Fc receptors. © 2013 American Chemical Society. Source

Bowden T.A.,University of Oxford | Baruah K.,University of Oxford | Coles C.H.,University of Oxford | Harvey D.J.,University of Oxford | And 8 more authors.
Journal of the American Chemical Society

Human IgG Fc glycosylation modulates immunological effector functions such as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and phagocytosis. Engineering of Fc glycans therefore enables fine-tuning of the therapeutic properties of monoclonal antibodies. The N-linked glycans of Fc are typically complex-type, forming a network of noncovalent interactions along the protein surface of the Cγ2 domain. Here, we manipulate the mammalian glycan-processing pathway to trap IgG1 Fc at sequential stages of maturation, from oligomannose- to hybrid- to complex-type glycans, and show that the Fc is structurally stabilized following the transition of glycans from their hybrid- to complex-type state. X-ray crystallographic analysis of this hybrid-type intermediate reveals that N-linked glycans undergo conformational changes upon maturation, including a flip within the trimannosyl core. Our crystal structure of this intermediate reveals a molecular basis for antibody biogenesis and provides a template for the structure-guided engineering of the protein-glycan interface of therapeutic antibodies. © 2012 American Chemical Society. Source

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