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Jupiter, FL, United States

Chen M.,Scripps Florida | Roush W.R.,Scripps Florida
Organic Letters | Year: 2012

Tirandamycin C is a newly isolated member of the tetramic acid family natural products. We described herein the first enantioselective synthesis of natural (-)-tirandamycin C, the postulated biosynthetic precursor of other members of this family. The highly stereoselective (>15:1) mismatched double asymmetric γ-stannylcrotylboration reaction of aldehyde 8 with crotylborane reagent (R)-E-9 was utilized to access the key anti,anti- stereotriad 18. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

A concise, enantioselective synthesis of (+)-crocacin C is described, featuring a highly diastereoselective mismatched double asymmetric δ-stannylcrotylboration of the stereochemically demanding chiral aldehyde 9 with the bifunctional crotylborane reagent (S)-E-10. The total synthesis of (+)-crocacin C was accomplished in seven steps (longest linear sequence) starting from commercially available precursors. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

The stereocontrolled synthesis of the β-branched anti,anti- dipropionate stereotriad 4 via aldol or crotylmetal chemistry represents a historical challenge to the organic synthesis community. Here we describe a general solution to the long-standing problem associated with the synthesis of 4 by utilizing mismatched double asymmetric crotylboration reactions of enantioenriched α-methyl substituted aldehydes with the chiral, nonracemic crotylborane reagent (S)-(E)-22 (or its enantiomer). This method not only provides direct access to anti,anti-dipropionate stereotriads 24 [a synthetic equivalent of 4] with very good (5-8:1) if not excellent (≥15:1) diastereoselectivity from β-branched chiral aldehydes with ≥50:1 intrinsic diastereofacial selectivity preferences but also provides a vinylstannane unit in the products that is properly functionalized for use in subsequent C-C bond-forming events. We anticipate that this method will be widely applicable and will lead to substantial simplification of strategies for synthesis of polyketide natural products. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Nuhant P.,Scripps Florida | Roush W.R.,Scripps Florida
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2013

A highly diastereoselective synthesis of N-acetyl dihydrotetrafibricin methyl ester (34) is described. The synthesis features three enantioselective double allylboration reactions and an intramolecular hydrosilylation/Fleming- Tamao oxidation sequence to establish seven of the hydroxy-bearing stereocenters of 34. Especially noteworthy is the fragment-assembly double allyboration reaction of 2 and 7 using reagent 3, which provides the advanced intermediate 6 with >20:1 diastereoselectivity. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Oelschlegel A.M.,Scripps Florida | Weissmann C.,Scripps Florida
PLoS Pathogens | Year: 2013

We have reported that properties of prion strains may change when propagated in different environments. For example, when swainsonine-sensitive 22L prions were propagated in PK1 cells in the presence of swainsonine, drug-resistant variants emerged. We proposed that prions constitute quasi- populations comprising a range of variants with different properties, from which the fittest are selected in a particular environment. Prion populations developed heterogeneity even after biological cloning, indicating that during propagation mutation-like processes occur at the conformational level. Because brain-derived 22L prions are naturally swainsonine resistant, it was not too surprising that prions which had become swa sensitive after propagation in cells could revert to drug resistance. Because RML prions, both after propagation in brain or in PK1 cells, are swainsonine sensitive, we investigated whether it was nonetheless possible to select swainsonine-resistant variants by propagation in the presence of the drug. Interestingly, this was not possible with the standard line of PK1 cells, but in certain PK1 sublines not only swainsonine-resistant, but even swainsonine-dependent populations (i.e. that propagated more rapidly in the presence of the drug) could be isolated. Once established, they could be passaged indefinitely in PK1 cells, even in the absence of the drug, without losing swainsonine dependence. The misfolded prion protein (PrPSc) associated with a swainsonine-dependent variant was less rapidly cleared in PK1 cells than that associated with its drug-sensitive counterpart, indicating that likely structural differences of the misfolded PrP underlie the properties of the prions. In summary, propagation of prions in the presence of an inhibitory drug may not only cause the selection of drug-resistant prions but even of stable variants that propagate more efficiently in the presence of the drug. These adaptations are most likely due to conformational changes of the abnormal prion protein. © 2013 Oelschlegel, Weissmann.

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