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Van Straten M.,The Mutual | Van Straten M.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem | Siani I.,A.A. Hoof Trimming | Bar D.,SCR Engineers
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2011

The objective of this study was to investigate whether cows diagnosed with claw horn lesions during routine claw trimming had an altered milk fat percentage on test days preceding the diagnosis, compared with cows without such lesions. Data included date of trimming, cow number, type, and location of claw lesions recorded by a professional claw trimmer during routine trimming sessions on 11 commercial dairy farms, and monthly test-day data. Recordings from 4,381 cows were included in the analysis. Three hundred seventy-two (8.5%) cows were diagnosed with at least one claw lesion. One hundred ninety-five (4.4%) cows were classified as cases of laminitis and 169 cows (3.9%) were classified as cases of infectious claw diseases. Average test-day milk fat percentage was estimated from monthly test-day data using a mixed model with a random farm effect and a marginal effect for repeated measurements. Estimated milk fat percentage of cows classified as cases of laminitis on the day of claw trimming was 0.17 and 0.22% less than that of cows with either no claw lesion or those with an infectious claw disease, on test days occurring 2 and 5 mo before claw trimming, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, decreased test-day milk fat percentage in dairy cows diagnosed with claw horn lesions has not been described. Because decreased milk fat and claw horn lesions have both been associated with subacute ruminal acidosis, it is plausible that subacute ruminal acidosis played a role in the association we found. A prospective study with a greater frequency of claw examinations would be necessary to help clarify these associations. Our findings indicate that test-day milk fat might be useful as a tool for monitoring cows and farms at risk for claw horn lesions. © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Source

Cha E.,Cornell University | Hertl J.A.,Cornell University | Bar D.,SCR Engineers | Grohn Y.T.,Cornell University
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2010

Traditionally, studies which placed a monetary value on the effect of lameness have calculated the costs at the herd level and rarely have they been specific to different types of lameness. These costs which have been calculated from former studies are not particularly useful for farmers in making economically optimal decisions depending on individual cow characteristics. The objective of this study was to calculate the cost of different types of lameness at the individual cow level and thereby identify the optimal management decision for each of three representative lameness diagnoses. This model would provide a more informed decision making process in lameness management for maximal economic profitability. We made modifications to an existing dynamic optimization and simulation model, studying the effects of various factors (incidence of lameness, milk loss, pregnancy rate and treatment cost) on the cost of different types of lameness. The average cost per case (US$) of sole ulcer, digital dermatitis and foot rot were 216.07, 132.96 and 120.70, respectively. It was recommended that 97.3% of foot rot cases, 95.5% of digital dermatitis cases and 92.3% of sole ulcer cases be treated. The main contributor to the total cost per case of sole ulcer was milk loss (38%), treatment cost for digital dermatitis (42%) and the effect of decreased fertility for foot rot (50%). This model affords versatility as it allows for parameters such as production costs, economic values and disease frequencies to be altered. Therefore, cost estimates are the direct outcome of the farm specific parameters entered into the model. Thus, this model can provide farmers economically optimal guidelines specific to their individual cows suffering from different types of lameness. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source

Hertl J.A.,Cornell University | Grohn Y.T.,Cornell University | Leach J.D. G.,University of Cambridge | Bar D.,SCR Engineers | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2010

The objective of this study was to estimate the effects of different types of clinical mastitis (CM) on the probability of conception in New York State Holstein cows. Data were available on 55,372 artificial inseminations (AI) in 23,695 lactations from 14,148 cows in 7 herds. We used generalized linear mixed models to model whether or not a cow conceived after a particular AI. Independent variables included AI number (first, second, third, fourth), parity, season when AI occurred, farm, type of CM (due to gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria, or other organisms) in the 6 wk before and after an AI, and occurrence of other diseases. Older cows were less likely to conceive. Inseminations occurring in the summer were least likely to be successful. Retained placenta decreased the probability of conception. Conception was also less likely with each successive AI. The probability of conception associated with the first AI was 0.29. The probability of conception decreased to 0.26, 0.25, and 0.24 for the second, third, and fourth AI, respectively. Clinical mastitis occurring any time between 14 d before until 35 d after an AI was associated with a lower probability of conception; the greatest effect was an 80% reduction associated with gram-negative CM occurring in the week after AI. In general, CM due to gram-negative bacteria had a more detrimental effect on probability of conception than did CM caused by gram-positive bacteria or other organisms. Furthermore, CM had more effect on probability of conception immediately around the time of AI. Additional information about CM (i.e., its timing with respect to AI, and whether the causative agent is gram-positive or gram-negative bacteria, or other organisms) is valuable to dairy personnel in determining why some cows are unable to conceive in a timely manner. These findings are also beneficial for the management of mastitic cows (especially those with gram-negative CM) when mastitis occurs close to AI. © 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Source

SCR Engineers | Date: 2011-09-13

A system and method of tracking animal livestock using electronic frequency signal transmitters and receivers is herein presented. The system involves electronic tags attached to the bodies of livestock. The tags transmit a signal which conveys the location or other pertinent information regarding the status of the animal. The signals are picked up by a receiver attached to a stationary platform, or located in a vehicle, or in a portable hand held receiver device. The information transmitted can be used to locate a specific animal or can be used to monitor the status and condition of the animal. The device contains several modes which minimize power consumption and maximize power supply lifetime.


SCR Engineers | Date: 2013-01-15

Computerized and electronic systems for cattle estrus detection and monitoring, namely dairy herd computerized management systems used to gather and analyze data on cattle, namely estrus detection, health monitoring, rumination monitoring, control unit, a personal computer and computer software for processing and analyzing the collected data; computerized and electronic systems for cattle estrus detection and monitoring, namely, computerized systems for controlling, handling and managing dairy herds including computers and computer software for health control, breeding control, selection gates, feed control; computerized and electronic systems for cattle estrus detection and monitoring, namely, electronic devices for cattle identification and monitoring, and parts and accessories, thereof, namely sensors, transponders and data receivers, data terminal with display, antennas, readers.

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