Evans H.C.,CAB International |
Seier M.K.,CAB International |
Derby J.-A.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada |
Falk S.,Scotts Company |
Bailey K.L.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada
Weed Research | Year: 2013
Summary: Cirsium arvense (Asteraceae) is known as creeping thistle in its native range in the UK and Canada thistle in its invasive North American range. Recently, the fungus Phoma macrostoma was registered in Canada as a bioherbicide in turfgrass, where it causes severe chlorosis (White Tip disease) and death of C. arvense and other broadleaved weeds. It was hypothesised that the disease originated in the UK on its thistle host and, therefore, that fungal isolates from both countries should be biologically and genetically similar. Twenty-six strains in the genus Phoma- isolated during surveys in the UK - were compared morphologically with the type culture of P. macrostoma, tested for bioherbicidal activity using the inoculum mat bioassay and genetically screened with bioherbicide-specific primers. White tip disease was found to be restricted to the eastern and southern counties of England. Phoma macrostoma was isolated consistently from diseased bleached tissues. Bioherbicidal isolates of P. macrostoma occupy a unique clade, which is phylogenetically distinct but morphologically indistinguishable from the type culture. Most isolates from the UK had the same bioherbicidal activity and similar genetic make-up as strain SRC 94-44B, the active ingredient in the registered Canadian product. The origin of all bioherbicidal strains found to date has a clear presence in both Canada and the UK, with strong genetic similarities, supporting the view of a common ancestry. Thus, on the evidence presented, the 'white tip' clade of P. macrostoma evolved in southern England. Therefore, the bioherbicide based on strain SRC 94-44B should also be eligible for registration in the UK, based on the pest risk assessment data already available. © 2012 European Weed Research Society.
Barnes J.,North Carolina State University |
Nelson P.,North Carolina State University |
Fonteno W.C.,North Carolina State University |
Whipker B.,North Carolina State University |
Jeong K.-Y.,Scotts Company
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2013
Addition of mature dairy manure compost (DMC) to peat-moss based root substrate adversely increases bulk density (Db) while enhancing water sorption of the substrate. Substrate manufacturers typically raise the weight-based water content of soilless root substrate to 50% to ensure adequate wettability during crop establishment. This study investigated the possibility of lowering the percentage of water in substrate containing DMC in order to reduce Db without adversely affecting wettability. DMC was incorporated into a 3 sphagnum peat moss : 1 perlite (v:v) formula as a partial substitution for peat moss at 0, 7.5, 15, 22.5, and 30% by volume of the substrate. The water content of each of the five formulations was adjusted to approximately 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50% by weight. Wettability curves were generated to assess the impact of DMC content and initial water content on substrate wettability. The wettability level in the 0% DMC substrate at the industry norm water content of 50% was achieved in 7.5, 15, 22.5, and 30% DMC substrates at water contents of 40, 30, 20, and 20%, respectively. Based on previous research, 15% DMC is a desirable level for plant growth. The Db of 0 and 15% DMC mixes at 50% water content are 130 and 232 g/L (a Db gain of 78%), respectively. However, our research indicated that only 30% water is required in the 15% DMC mix for it to equal the wettability in the 0% DMC-50% water mix. This reduction lowered the Db of the 15% DMC-30% H 2O mix to 180 g/L (a 39% Db gain), which cuts the Db gain due to the DMC addition in half and lowers the handling and transportation costs of this mix; this scenario is best for the industry.
Oms Investments Inc., Scotts Company and Gro Inc | Date: 2000-08-15
SCOTTS Ltd and Scala Collections Ltd | Date: 2007-07-17
Precious metals and their alloys; models in the nature of figurines in precious metal; jewelry, imitation jewelry, precious stones; tie clips, tie tacks, key rings of precious metals, ring trinkets, pendants, rings being jewelry, bracelets, necklaces, earrings, jewelry chains, pins being jewelry, badges of precious metals, watch winding buttons, lapel pins, money clips of precious metals, cuff links, paper weights of precious metals; horological and chronometric instruments, watches. Leather and imitations of leather sold in bulk; leather and imitation leather goods, namely briefcases, handbags, purses, luggage, wallets; animal skins and hides; trunks and traveling bags; umbrellas, parasols and walking sticks; whips, harness and saddlery; leather hand bags, leather sports bags, leather carrying bags, wallets, carrying cases, leather key holders, sports bags, back packs; saddle belts; hat boxes for travel; leather key cases; leather pouches; purses; satchels; straps for luggage and handbags; rucksacks; valises; clothing for pets; business card cases. Supermarkets, mini-markets, retail store services, online retail store services, mail order catalog services, electronic catalog services featuring sunglasses, cases, bags, luggage, rucksacks, umbrellas, jewelry, watches, cosmetics and accessories and parts and fittings for all the aforesaid goods.
Scotts Corporation | Date: 1985-01-30
BRAND OF PAINT. THE RETAIL SALE OF HOME AND GARDEN PRODUCTS.