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Stensvold C.R.,Statens Serum Institute | Smith H.V.,Scottish Parasite Diagnostic Laboratory | Nagel R.,Medici Medical Center | Olsen K.E.P.,Statens Serum Institute | Traub R.J.,University of Queensland
Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology | Year: 2010

Metronidazole constitutes a mainstay in the antimicrobial therapy of intestinal protozoa, and is also traditionally considered first-line therapy in cases where there is a requirement to treat Blastocystis, a common protist of disputable clinical significance. Many compounds have been used in attempts to eradicate the parasite, and an accumulating body of data indicates that successful antimicrobial eradication of Blastocystis is far from straightforward. This review focuses on some issues that prevent us from reaching a clear understanding of how to eradicate Blastocystis based on chemotherapeutic intervention, by focusing on conflicting reports on the efficacy of metronidazole and other compounds and study design and data limitations. The review provides a comprehensive overview of antimicrobials used to target Blastocystis, and discusses issues pertaining to drug resistance, treatment failure, and reinfection. Finally, key methodological and molecular diagnostic tools that will assist in the generation of data required to improve current knowledge are identified and discussed. Copyright © 2010 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Lim Y.A.L.,University of Melbourne | Lim Y.A.L.,University of Malaya | Iqbal A.,University of Malaya | Surin J.,University of Malaya | And 5 more authors.
Infection, Genetics and Evolution | Year: 2011

Given the HIV epidemic in Malaysia, genetic information on opportunistic pathogens, such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia, in HIV/AIDS patients is pivotal to enhance our understanding of epidemiology, patient care, management and disease surveillance. In the present study, 122 faecal samples from HIV/AIDS patients were examined for the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts using a conventional coproscopic approach. Such oocysts and cysts were detected in 22.1% and 5.7% of the 122 faecal samples, respectively. Genomic DNAs from selected samples were tested in a nested-PCR, targeting regions of the small subunit (SSU) of nuclear ribosomal RNA and the 60. kDa glycoprotein (gp60) genes (for Cryptosporidium), and the triose-phosphate isomerase (tpi) gene (for Giardia), followed by direct sequencing. The sequencing of amplicons derived from SSU revealed that Cryptosporidium parvum was the most frequently detected species (64% of 25 samples tested), followed by C. hominis (24%), C. meleagridis (8%) and C. felis (4%). Sequencing of a region of g. p60 identified C. parvum subgenotype IIdA15G2R1 and C. hominis subgenotypes IaA14R1, IbA10G2R2, IdA15R2, IeA11G2T3R1 and IfA11G1R2. Sequencing of amplicons derived from tpi revealed G. duodenalis assemblage A, which is of zoonotic importance. This is the first report of C. hominis, C. meleagridis and C. felis from Malaysian HIV/AIDS patients. Future work should focus on an extensive analysis of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in such patients as well as in domestic and wild animals, in order to improve the understanding of transmission patterns and dynamics in Malaysia. It would also be particularly interesting to establish the relationship among clinical manifestation, CD4 cell counts and genotypes/subgenotypes of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in HIV/AIDS patients. Such insights would assist in a better management of clinical disease in immuno-deficient patients as well as improved preventive and control strategies. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Molloy S.F.,Trinity College Dublin | Tanner C.J.,Trinity College Dublin | Kirwan P.,Trinity College Dublin | Asaolu S.O.,Scottish Parasite Diagnostic Laboratory | And 4 more authors.
Epidemiology and Infection | Year: 2011

A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate risk factors for sporadic Cryptosporidium infection in a paediatric population in Nigeria. Of 692 children, 134 (19·4%) were infected with Cryptosporidium oocysts. Cryptosporidium spp. were identified in 49 positive samples using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism and direct sequencing of the glycoprotein60 (GP60) gene. Generalized linear mixed-effects models were used to identify risk factors for all Cryptosporidium infections, as well as for C. hominis and C. parvum both together and separately. Risk factors identified for all Cryptosporidium infections included malaria infection and a lack of Ascaris infection. For C. hominis infections, stunting and younger age were highlighted as risk factors, while stunting and malaria infection were identified as risk factors for C. parvum infection. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2010.

Pollock K.G.J.,Health Protection Scotland | Ternent H.E.,University of Glasgow | Mellor D.J.,University of Glasgow | Chalmers R.M.,UK Cryptosporidium Reference Unit | And 3 more authors.
Zoonoses and Public Health | Year: 2010

The spatial and temporal epidemiology of human cryptosporidiosis was described by analysing sporadic cases reported in Scotland from 2005 to 2007. Measures of livestock density and human population density were explored as indicators of the geographical variation in prevalence. Cryptosporidium parvum was more common in areas with lower human population densities, with a higher ratio of the number of farms to human inhabitants and with a higher ratio of the number of private water supplies to human inhabitants. Cryptosporidium parvum caused disease in humans in rural areas and in areas with high ruminant livestock density, whereas Cryptosporidium hominis was more common in the more densely human populated areas of Scotland. The association of private water supplies and increased Cryptosporidium reports merits further public health efforts. © 2009 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

Rzezutka A.,National Veterinary Research Institute | Nichols R.A.B.,Scottish Parasite Diagnostic Laboratory | Connelly L.,Scottish Parasite Diagnostic Laboratory | Kaupke A.,National Veterinary Research Institute | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Food Microbiology | Year: 2010

Samples of fresh vegetables and soft fruit were collected from farmers' markets in the Lublin Area of Poland during 2006-2007; the produce was grown in areas of high to moderate livestock production. Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts were eluted from food surfaces, separated from residual food materials by IMS and identified by immunofluorescence and Nomarski differential interference contrast microscopy. Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts were detected in 6 of 128 vegetable samples (range 1-47 oocysts), but not in any of 35 fruit samples. Both empty and intact oocysts were detected. Species identity of oocyst-positive samples was performed by molecular analysis at four genetic loci. One of two 18S rRNA loci amplified DNA from 5 of the 6 oocyst-positive samples, but insufficient DNA for RFLP or sequencing analysis was available from 4 of these samples. An oocyst-positive celery sample generated an RFLP pattern consistent with C. parvum at two loci, but insufficient DNA was available for subtyping (GP60 sequencing) this isolate. Oocyst-contaminated foods originated from districts with the highest numbers of homesteads possessing cattle herds and no contaminated produce was detected from districts containing lower numbers of cattle-owning homesteads, strengthening the assumption that the origin of the contamination was livestock. The results of this study strengthen the evidence for the potential for zoonotic foodborne transmission of Cryptosporidium. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

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