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Alexander C.L.,Scottish Parasite Diagnostic and Reference Laboratory | Clutterbuck D.J.,Borders Sexual Health | Jones B.,Royal Infirmary
International Journal of STD and AIDS

Travel-related strongyloidiasis is described in an HIV-infected individual who previously tested positive for schistosomiasis. This report illustrates that a positive serological result for schistosomiasis may represent a co-infection but may potentially occur as a result of cross-reactivity. Routine testing for schistosomiasis but not for strongyloidiasis in HIV-infected individuals who have spent more than one month in sub-Saharan Africa is recommended in recent UK HIV care guidelines. Therefore we recommend that further consideration should be given to routine investigations for other parasites including Strongyloides species in these circumstances. Source

Nichols G.L.,Public Health England | Freedman J.,Public Health England | Pollock K.G.,Health Protection Scotland | Rumble C.,Public Health England | And 10 more authors.

Cyclospora cayetanensis was identified in 176 returned travellers from the Riviera Maya region of Mexico between 1 June and 22 September 2015; 79 in the United Kingdom (UK) and 97 in Canada. UK cases completed a food exposure questionnaire. This increase in reported Cyclospora cases highlights risks of gastrointestinal infections through travelling, limitations in Cyclospora surveillance and the need for improved hygiene in the production of food consumed in holiday resorts. © 2015, European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). All rights reserved. Source

L.Alexander C.,Scottish Parasite Diagnostic and Reference Laboratory | Niebel M.,Clinical Microbiology | Jones B.,Royal Infirmary
Parasitology International

Diagnostic testing in the United Kingdom for Cryptosporidium and Giardia species is routinely performed by microscopy. In this study, two hundred stool samples from human clinical cases were examined for the presence of these two parasites comparing microscopy with an antigen immunoassay, Quik Chek (Techlab, Inc.). The Quik Chek assay was shown to have a sensitivity and specificity for Cryptosporidium detection of 87.6% and 98.9% respectively and for Giardia detection, 93.3% and 99.4% respectively. The high correlation with microscopy data provides evidence to support implementation of this rapid test within diagnostic microbiology laboratories. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source

Connelly L.,Scottish Parasite Diagnostic and Reference Laboratory | Craig B.H.,University of Edinburgh | Jones B.,Scottish Parasite Diagnostic and Reference Laboratory | Jones B.,Royal Infirmary | Alexander C.L.,Scottish Parasite Diagnostic and Reference Laboratory
Applied and Environmental Microbiology

This is the first report to characterize the genotypes and subtypes of Cryptosporidium species infecting a geographically isolated population of feral Soay sheep (Ovis aries) on Hirta, St. Kilda, Scotland, during two distinct periods: (i) prior to a population crash and (ii) as host numbers increased. Cryptosporidium DNA was extracted by freeze-thawing of immunomagnetically separated (IMS) bead-oocyst complexes, and species were identified following nested-PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)/PCR sequencing at two Cryptosporidium 18S rRNA loci. Two hundred fifty-five samples were analyzed, and the prevalent Cryptosporidium species in single infections were identified as C. hominis (11.4% of all samples tested), C. parvum (9%), C. xiaoi (12.5%), and C. ubiquitum (6.7%). Cryptosporidium parvum was also present with other Cryptosporidium species in 27.1% of all samples tested. Cryptosporidium parvum- and C. hominis-positive isolates were genotyped using two nested-PCR assays that amplify the Cryptosporidium glycoprotein 60 gene (GP60). GP60 gene analysis showed the presence of two Cryptosporidium genotypes, namely, C. parvum IIaA19G1R1 and C. hominis IbA10G2. This study reveals a higher diversity of Cryptosporidium species/genotypes than was previously expected. We suggest reasons for the high diversity of Cryptosporidium parasites within this isolated population and discuss the implications for our understanding of cryptosporidiosis. © 2013, American Society for Microbiology. Source

Parcell B.J.,Ninewells Hospital | Sharpe G.,Ninewells Hospital | Jones B.,Royal Infirmary | Jones B.,Scottish Parasite Diagnostic and Reference Laboratory | Alexander C.L.,Scottish Parasite Diagnostic and Reference Laboratory

This is a description of an unusual case of conjunctivitis caused by a trombiculid red mite, Neotrombicula autumnalis. The patient's condition improved only after its removal and with application of carbomer gel eye drops. There have been reports of increasing numbers of severe cases of trombiculosis over the last 15 years particularly in DEU and a number of cases have also been reported in the United Kingdom. Cases where trombiculid larvae feed on any region of the head or face of humans are unknown. In addition it is most likely the patient acquired the infection from her pet cat and this is the first description of acquisition from this animal. © 2013 B.J. Parcell et al., published by EDP Sciences. Source

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