The Scottish Crop Research Institute more commonly known as the SCRI was a scientific institute located in Invergowrie near Dundee, Scotland. As of April 2011, when SCRI merged with the Macaulay Land Use Institute it is now part of The James Hutton Institute. Wikipedia.
Raven J.A.,Scottish Crop Research Institute |
Raven J.A.,University of Western Australia
Physiologia Plantarum | Year: 2011
Photoinhibition is an inevitable consequence of oxygenic photosynthesis. However, the concept of a 'photoinhibition-proof' plant in which photosystem II (PSII) is immune to photodamage is useful as a benchmark for considering the performances of plants with varying mixes of mechanisms which limit the extent of photodamage and which repair photodamage. Some photodamage is bound to occur, and the energy costs of repair are the direct costs of repair plus the photosynthesis foregone during repair. One mechanism permitting partial avoidance of photodamage is restriction of the number of photons incident on the photosynthetic apparatus per unit time, achieved by phototactic movement of motile algae to places with lower incident photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), by phototactic movement of plastids within cells to positions that minimize the incident PAR and by photonastic relative movements of parts of photolithotrophs attached to a substrate. The other means of avoiding photodamage is dissipating excitation of photosynthetic pigments including state transitions, non-photochemical quenching by one of the xanthophyll cycles or some other process and photochemical quenching by increased electron flow through PSII involving CO2 and other acceptors, including the engagement of additional electron transport pathways. These mechanisms inevitably have the potential to decrease the rate of growth. As well as the decreased photosynthetic rates as a result of photodamage and the restrictions on photosynthesis imposed by the repair, avoidance, quenching and scavenging mechanisms, there are also additional energy, nitrogen and phosphorus costs of producing and operating repair, avoidance, quenching and scavenging mechanisms. A comparison is also made between the costs of photoinhibition and those of other plant functions impeded by the occurrence of oxygenic photosynthesis, i.e. the competitive inhibition of the carboxylase activity of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase by oxygen via the oxygenase activity, and oxygen damage to nitrogenase in diazotrophic organisms. © Physiologia Plantarum 2011.
Macfarlane S.A.,Scottish Crop Research Institute
Molecular Plant Pathology | Year: 2010
The tobraviruses, Tobacco rattle virus (TRV), Pea early-browning virus (PEBV) and Pepper ringspot virus (PepRSV), are positive-strand RNA viruses with rod-shaped virus particles that are transmitted between plants by trichodorid nematodes. As a group, these viruses infect many plant species, with TRV having the widest host range. Recent studies have begun to dissect the interaction of TRV with potato, currently the most commercially important crop disease caused by any of the tobraviruses. As well as being successful plant pathogens, these viruses have become widely used as vectors for expression in plants of nonviral proteins or, more frequently, as initiators of virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS). Precisely why tobraviruses should be so effective as VIGS vectors is not known; however, molecular studies of the mode of action of the tobravirus silencing suppressor protein are shedding some light on this process. © 2010 The Author.
Davies H.,Scottish Crop Research Institute
Food Control | Year: 2010
Risk assessment frameworks, such as those used for GM crops, have detailed comparative analysis with appropriate non-GM counterparts as their cornerstone. Opinions have been voiced that current analytical approaches are too specific and need to be complemented by more unbiased, larger scale analysis of gene expression and protein expression using transcriptomics and proteomics, respectively. In parallel, the use of metabolomics has been advocated as an approach to expand significantly the range of metabolites that can be measured to assess more stringently the potential for any unintended effects. Transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics have been termed collectively "omics" technologies. This review assesses the potential for using "omics" techniques in risk assessment. Importantly, the review provides information on sources of natural variation which can result from crop management practices, from interactions between genotype and growing environment and from non-GM breeding systems. This provides an important benchmark for risk assessors and risk managers. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd.
Gunstone F.D.,Scottish Crop Research Institute
European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology | Year: 2011
Production and trade in oilseeds and in vegetable (plant) oils during the last 10 years are detailed. Separate figures provided for food and non-food use show the growing use for the latter purpose. While this is mainly for the production of biodiesel another factor has been the growth of the oleochemical industry in South East Asia. Using this information an attempt is made to estimate supply and demand in the near future. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
White P.J.,Scottish Crop Research Institute |
Brown P.H.,University of California at Davis
Annals of Botany | Year: 2010
Background Plants require at least 14 mineral elements for their nutrition. These include the macronutrients nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and sulphur (S) and the micronutrients chlorine (Cl), boron (B), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), nickel (Ni) and molybdenum (Mo). These are generally obtained from the soil. Crop production is often limited by low phytoavailability of essential mineral elements and/or the presence of excessive concentrations of potentially toxic mineral elements, such as sodium (Na), Cl, B, Fe, Mn and aluminium (Al), in the soil solution.ScopeThis article provides the context for a Special Issue of the Annals of Botany on 'Plant Nutrition for Sustainable Development and Global Health'. It provides an introduction to plant mineral nutrition and explains how mineral elements are taken up by roots and distributed within plants. It introduces the concept of the ionome (the elemental composition of a subcellular structure, cell, tissue or organism), and observes that the activities of key transport proteins determine species-specific, tissue and cellular ionomes. It then describes how current research is addressing the problems of mineral toxicities in agricultural soils to provide food security and the optimization of fertilizer applications for economic and environmental sustainability. It concludes with a perspective on how agriculture can produce edible crops that contribute sufficient mineral elements for adequate animal and human nutrition. © The Author 2009.