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Dundee, United Kingdom

McClements P.L.,Scottish Cancer Registry | Madurasinghe V.,Cancer Research UK | Thomson C.S.,Cancer Research UK | Fraser C.G.,Scottish Bowel Screening Center | And 5 more authors.
Cancer Epidemiology | Year: 2012

Objective: To assess the impact of the UK colorectal cancer guaiac faecal occult blood test screening pilot studies on incidence trends, stage distribution and mortality trends. Design: Ecological study. Setting: Scotland and the West Midlands. Data: We extracted anonymised colorectal cancer (ICD-10 C18-C20) registration (1982-2006) and death records (1982-2007), along with corresponding mid-year population estimates. Intervention: Residents of the screening pilot areas, in the age group 50-69 years, were offered biennial guaiac faecal occult blood test screening from 2000 onwards. Screening was not offered routinely in non-pilot areas until the start of the roll-out of the national screening programmes in England and in Scotland in 2006 and 2007, respectively. Main outcome measures: We analysed trends in age-specific incidence and mortality rates, and Dukes' stage distribution. Within each country/region, we compared the screening pilot areas to non-screening pilot ('control') areas using Chi square tests and Poisson regression modelling. Results: Following the start of the screening pilots, as expected in the prevalent round of a new screening programme, in the pilot areas there was a short-lived increase in incidence of colorectal cancer among 50-69 year olds except for females in the West Midlands. A trend towards earlier stage and less advanced disease was also observed, with males showing significant increases in Dukes' A and corresponding decreases in Dukes' C in the screening pilot areas (all P< 0.03). With the exception of females in the West Midlands, mortality rates for colorectal cancer decreased significantly and at a faster rate in the populations invited for screening. Conclusion: The existence of a natural control population not yet invited for screening provided a unique opportunity to assess whether the benefits of colorectal cancer screening, beyond the setting of a randomised controlled trial, could be detected using routinely collected statistics. Our analysis suggests that screening will fulfil its aim of reducing mortality from colorectal cancer. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Digby J.,Scottish Bowel Screening Center | Fraser C.G.,Center for Research into Cancer Prevention and Screening | Carey F.A.,Ninewells Hospital and Medical School | McDonald P.J.,Scottish Bowel Screening Center | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Pathology | Year: 2013

Aims Guaiac faecal occult blood tests are being replaced by faecal immunochemical tests (FIT). We investigated whether faecal haemoglobin concentration (f-Hb) was related to stage in progression of colorectal neoplasia, studying cancer and adenoma characteristics in an evaluation of quantitative FIT as a first-line screening test. Methods We invited 66 225 individuals aged 50-74 years to provide one sample of faeces. f-Hb was measured on samples from 38 720 responders. Colonoscopy findings and pathology data were collected on the 943 with f-Hb≥400 ng Hb/ml (80 mg Hb/g faeces). Results Of the 814 participants with outcome data (median age: 63 years, range 50-75, 56.4% male), 39 had cancer, 190 high-risk adenoma (HRA, defined as ≥3 or any ≥10 mm) and 119 low-risk adenoma (LRA). 74.4% of those with cancer had f-Hb 1000 ng Hb/ml compared with 58.4% with HRA, and 44.1% with no pathology. Median f-Hb concentration was higher in those with cancer than those with no (p<0.002) or non-neoplastic (p<0.002) pathology, and those with LRA (p=0.0001). Polyp cancers had lower concentrations than more advanced stage cancers (p<0.04). Higher f-Hb was also found in those with HRA than with LRA (p<0.006), large (>10 mm) compared with small adenoma (p<0.0001), and also an adenoma displaying high-grade dysplasia compared with low-grade dysplasia (p<0.009). Conclusions f-Hb is related to severity of colorectal neoplastic disease. This has ramifications for the selection of the appropriate cut-off concentration adopted for bowel screening programmes. Source

O'Carroll R.E.,University of Stirling | Steele R.J.,University of Dundee | Libby G.,Scottish Bowel Screening Center | Brownlee L.,Scottish Bowel Screening Center | Chambers J.A.,University of Stirling
BMC Public Health | Year: 2013

Abstract. Background: Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in the UK. Screening is key to early detection. The Scottish programme of colorectal cancer screening is running successfully, and involves all adults aged between 50 and 74 years being invited to post back a faecal sample for testing every 2 years. However, screening uptake is sub-optimal: for example rates for the period November 2009 to October 2011 ranged from just 39% for males living in the most deprived areas to 67% for least deprived females. Recent research has shown that asking people to consider the emotional consequences of not participating in screening (anticipated regret) can lead to a significant increase in screening uptake. Methods/Design. We will test a simple anticipated regret manipulation, in a large randomised controlled trial with 60,000 members of the general public. They will be randomly allocated to one of 3 arms, no questionnaire, control questionnaire or anticipated regret questionnaire. The primary outcome will be screening test kit return. Results will also be examined by demographic variables (age, gender, deprivation) as these are currently related to screening kit return. Discussion. If this anticipated regret intervention leads to a significant increase in colorectal cancer screening kit returns, this would represent a rare example of a theoretically-driven, simple intervention that could result in earlier detection of colorectal cancer and many more lives saved. Trial registration. Current Controlled trials: ISRCTN74986452. © 2013 O'Carroll et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Steele R.J.C.,University of Dundee | Steele R.J.C.,Scottish Bowel Screening Center | Steele R.J.C.,Bowel Screening Research Unit | Mcclements P.L.,Information Services | And 4 more authors.
Colorectal Disease | Year: 2014

Aim: The patterns of response in faecal occult blood test (FOBT) screening were studied. Method: A total of 251 578 people invited three times for faecal occult blood testing were categorized according to how they responded to the invitations, as follows: YNN, NYN, NNY, NYY, YNY, YYN, YYY or NNN (Y = response; N = no response). Results: Overall, 163 038 (64.8%) responded at least once, and of those the biggest category was YYY (98 494, 60.4%). Of 1927 cancers diagnosed in the age group eligible for screening, there were 405 screen-detected cancers, 529 interval cancers and 993 cancers arising in people who had not been screened for over 2 years (i.e. falling outside the interval cancer category). In the YYY group, 79 screen-detected cancers would have been missed had the members of this group responded YNN and 65 had they responded YYN. In the YYN group, 104 screening cancers would have been missed if they had followed the YNN pattern. In most cases, the screen-detected cancers were diagnosed at the last invitation accepted, indicating that, after a diagnosis of cancer, further screening invitations were rarely accepted. Accordingly, the numbers of screen-detected and interval cancers were adjusted for likely pattern of response according to the proportion of the whole population falling into each pattern. With this adjustment, 40.9% of the cancers in the YYY group were screen detected compared with 29.3% in the YYN group and 20.7% in the YNN group (P < 0.001). Among those who responded once, twice and three times, the stage distribution of screen-detected cancers was similar, indicating that the prognosis of screen-detected cancer is unlikely to be poorer if not detected at the first screen. Conclusion: This study is the first to examine patterns of response to screening invitations and confirms the importance to individuals of continuing to accept repeated screening invitations. © 2013 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland. Source

Fraser C.G.,University of Dundee | Digby J.,Scottish Bowel Screening Center | McDonald P.J.,Scottish Bowel Screening Center Laboratory | Strachan J.A.,Scottish Bowel Screening Center Laboratory | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Medical Screening | Year: 2012

Objectives To evaluate a two-tier reflex guaiac-based faecal occult blood test (gFOBT)/faecal immunochemical test (FIT) algorithm in screening for colorectal cancer. Setting Fourth screening round in NHS Tayside (Scotland). Methods gFOBT were sent to 50-74-year-olds. Participants with five or six windows positive were offered colonoscopy. Participants with one to four windows positive were sent a FIT and, if positive, were offered colonoscopy. Participants providing an untestable gFOBT were sent a FIT and, if positive, were offered colonoscopy. Outcomes following positive results, cancer stages and key performance indicators were assessed. Results Of 131,885 invited, 73,315 (55.6%) responded. There were 66,957 (91.3%) negative, 241 (0.3%) strong positive, 5230 (7.1%) weak positive and 887 (1.2%) untestable results. The 241 participants who had five or six windows positive had more cancers than those positive by other routes: only 3 of the 30 cancers (9.7%) were Dukes' A. Among the 983 positive results from the weak positive gFOBT then positive FIT route, there were fewer cancers and more normal colonoscopies, but more adenomas than in the group with a strong positive gFOBT. In those with an untestable gFOBT, 77 had a positive FIT result, with fewer true and more false positive results than in the other groups. Fewer males had cancer and stages were earlier than in females, but more had adenoma. The detection rate for cancer was 0.18% and the PPV for cancer and all adenomas was 41.3%. Conclusions The algorithm and FIT following a weak positive gFOBT have advantages. FIT following an untestable gFOBT warrants review. Source

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