Scott, LA, United States
Scott, LA, United States

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Godara R.K.,Louisiana State University | Godara R.K.,Northeast Research Station | Williams B.J.,Scott Research Extension Center | Webster E.P.,Louisiana State University | And 2 more authors.
Weed Technology | Year: 2012

Field experiments were conducted in 2006, 2007, and 2008 at the Louisiana State University Agricultural Center's Northeast Research Station near St. Joseph, LA, to evaluate imazosulfuron programs involving rate, application timings, and tank mixes for PRE and POST broadleaf weed control in drill-seeded rice. Imazosulfuron showed residual activity against both Texasweed and hemp sesbania. PRE-applied imazosulfuron at 168 g ai ha -1 and higher rates provided 83 to 93% Texasweed control at 4 WAP. At 12 WAP, Texasweed control with 168 g ha -1 and higher rates was 92%. Hemp sesbania control with 168 g ha -1 and higher rates was 86 to 89% at 4 WAP and 65 to 86% at 12 WAP. Imazosulfuron at 224 g ha -1 applied EPOST provided 84 to 93% Texasweed control and 82 to 87% hemp sesbania control, and it was as effective as its tank mixture with bispyribac-sodium. When applied LPOST, four- to five-leaf Texasweed, imazosulfuron alone at 224 g ha -1 was not effective against Texasweed and hemp sesbania, but did improve weed control when mixed with bispyribac-sodium at 17.6 g ai ha -1. © 2012 Weed Science Society of America.


Godara R.K.,Louisiana State University | Williams B.J.,Scott Research Extension Center | Williams B.J.,Northeast Research Station | Webster E.P.,Louisiana State University
Weed Technology | Year: 2011

Texasweed is an annual broadleaf plant belonging to the Euphorbiaceae family and is an emerging problem in southern U.S. rice fields. Field studies were conducted in 2008 and 2009 to study the effect of flood depth on Texasweed survival and growth. The trearments were five flood depths: 0, 10, 15, 20, and 30 cm and two Texasweed growth stages: two- to three-leaf stage and four- to five-leaf stage. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized split-plot design with three replications. Flooding conditions were created by placing potted plants in 1.3 m by 0.7 m by 0.7 m polyvinyl chloride troughs. The effect of flood depth on Texasweed growth and fruit production was evaluated using ANOVA and regression analysis. Texasweed plants were able to survive in floods up to 30 cm; however, growth and fruit production were reduced. Increasing flood depths resulted in increased plant height and greater biomass allocation to stem. Texasweed plants produced adventitious roots and a thick spongy tissue, secondary aerenchyma, in the submerged roots and stem, which may play a role in its survival under flooded conditions. The recommended flood depth for rice in Louisiana is 5 to 10 cm. A 10-cm flood in the present study caused about 30 and 15% biomass reduction in two- to three-leaf and four- to five-leaf stage Texasweed, respectively. The results, thus, suggest that flooding alone may not be a viable option for Texasweed management in drill-seeded rice. However, appropriate manipulation of flooding could enhance the effectiveness of POST herbicides. This aspect needs further investigation. © Weed Science Society of America.


Godara R.K.,Louisiana State University | Godara R.K.,Scott Research Extension Center | Williams B.J.,Louisiana State University | Williams B.J.,Scott Research Extension Center | And 2 more authors.
Weed Science | Year: 2012

Experiments were conducted on potted plants under field conditions in 2007 and 2008 at the Louisiana State University Agricultural Center's Northeast Research Station near St. Joseph, LA, to evaluate Texasweed response to shade. Shade levels of 30, 50, 70, and 90 were achieved using 1.8-m by 1.8-m by 1.8-m tents built using 2.54-cm-diam polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe and polypropylene fabric. Shade had no effect on Texasweed emergence but significantly reduced its growth. There were significant growth differences between plants transferred directly and gradually to a given shade level. At 100 d after emergence, plants gradually exposed to 30, 50, 70, and 90 shade had 13, 22, 37, and 58 less total dry matter per plants, respectively, than did those in 0 shade. Texasweed height in 70 and 90 shade was increased by 28 and 20, respectively. Texasweed seemed to mitigate the adverse effect of shade by increasing specific leaf area (SLA) and percentage of leaf biomass. Increasing SLA and the percentage of leaf biomass appears to be a strategy for efficient allocation of biomass for light capture and carbohydrate synthesis, which can be used for height increase until the plant rises above the crop canopy. Although fruit production was significantly reduced, Texasweed was able to reproduce in 90 shade. Nomenclature: Texasweed, Caperonia palustris (L.) St. Hil. CNPPA. © Weed Science Society of America.

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