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Temple, TX, United States

Mirza A.,Oregon Health And Science University | Moriarty A.M.,Washington University in St. Louis | Probe R.A.,Scott and White Hospital | Ellis T.J.,Ohio State University
Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma | Year: 2010

Objectives: To assess the risk of injury to the superficial peroneal nerve, saphenous nerve, and saphenous vein in percutaneous fixation of the distal fibula and tibia. Methods: Ten adult cadaver lower extremities were instrumented with precontoured periarticular plates for the distal tibia and fibula. Plates were inserted percutaneously along the medial distal tibia and lateral fibula. Smooth wires were inserted percutaneously into each screw hole. Dissection of the superficial peroneal nerve, saphenous nerve, and saphenous vein was performed along their respective course. The position of the neurovascular structures relative to the smooth wires was recorded. Results: The saphenous nerve and vein had a predictable course along the medial aspect of the ankle. Both structures were injured in every specimen. This occurred consistently at 2.0 to 4.7 cm from the tip of the medial malleolus. The superficial peroneal nerve demonstrated large variance in the exit point from the lateral compartment crural fascia, exiting at an average of 11.6 cm from the tip of the lateral malleolus. Injury occurred in a single specimen at 11.5 cm from this point. Conclusions: The superficial peroneal nerve, saphenous nerve, and saphenous vein are at risk during percutaneous submuscular plating of the distal fibula and tibia. Careful dissection proximally for the fibula and distally for the tibia can minimize the risk of damage to these structures. © 2010 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

Nair N.,Scott and White Hospital | Nair N.,Texas A&M University | Ball T.,Texas A&M University | Uber P.A.,University of Maryland, Baltimore | Mehra M.R.,University of Maryland, Baltimore
Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation | Year: 2011

Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) continues to present a challenge for the survival of the cardiac allograft. AMR appears to be on the rise, likely secondary to changing trends in clinical practice, including selection of patients for transplantation on mechanical circulatory support and development of more effective combinations of immunosuppressive drugs against acute cellular rejection. Most current strategies are aimed at treating acute AMR, but the treatment of chronic AMR is still not well defined. Clinically, AMR can often be more severe than cellular rejection and more difficult to treat, often not responding to typical protocols of increased immunosuppression. Complex steps involved in the antibody response allows for several potential targets for therapeutic intervention, including suppression of T and B cells, elimination of circulating antibodies, and inhibition of residual antibodies. Existing evidence suggests a multiregimen approach is the best option. Sustenance of accommodation and induction of tolerance could be viewed as viable options if adequate immune surveillance can be achieved in this setting. This review discusses the challenges in treating AMR and provides a critical analysis of current and possible future therapies. © 2011 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. All rights reserved. Source

Engel J.D.,George Washington University | Sutherland D.E.,George Washington University | Williams S.B.,Harvard University | Wagner K.R.,Scott and White Hospital
Journal of Endourology | Year: 2011

Background and Purpose: Radical prostatectomy is commonly performed for the treatment of patients with prostate cancer. Several studies have demonstrated a reduction in penile size after open radical retropubic prostatectomy. The objective of this study is to describe changes in penile length after after robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALRP). Patients and Methods: We performed a randomized, open label, multicenter study in men with normal erectile function who underwent bilateral nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy. We evaluated changes in measured stretched penile length (SPL), a secondary end point of the study, in a subset of men from a single site who underwent RALRP by one surgeon. They were randomized to either intraurethral alprostadil 125 to 250 mg daily or oral sildenafil citrate 50mg daily for 9 months. SPL was measured from pubic bone to coronal sulcus using a semirigid ruler before surgery and at 1, 3, 6, 9, 10, and 11 months. Results: A total of 127 patients were enrolled and 94 completed the 11-month follow-up. The mean patient age was 56.5 years. Baseline mean SPL (cm) before surgery was 11.77 and decreased to 11.13 at 1 month (P<0.0001). A trend toward recovery of SPL was seen at 3 and 6 months. Mean SPL was not significantly different from baseline at 9, 10, and 11 months. Conclusions: This report describes changes in SPL over time after RALRP for prostate cancer. The expected decrease in length was observed shortly after surgery, but, by 9 months, penile length had returned to the preoperative measurement. Copyright © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Source

Hai B.,Texas A&M University | Yang Z.,Texas A&M University | Shangguan L.,Texas A&M University | Zhao Y.,Texas A&M University | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics | Year: 2012

Purpose: Many head and neck cancer survivors treated with radiotherapy suffer from permanent impairment of their salivary gland function, for which few effective prevention or treatment options are available. This study explored the potential of transient activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in preventing radiation damage to salivary glands in a preclinical model. Methods and Materials: Wnt reporter transgenic mice were exposed to 15 Gy single-dose radiation in the head and neck area to evaluate the effects of radiation on Wnt activity in salivary glands. Transient Wnt1 overexpression in basal epithelia was induced in inducible Wnt1 transgenic mice before together with, after, or without local radiation, and then saliva flow rate, histology, apoptosis, proliferation, stem cell activity, and mRNA expression were evaluated. Results: Radiation damage did not significantly affect activity of Wnt/β-catenin pathway as physical damage did. Transient expression of Wnt1 in basal epithelia significantly activated the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in submandibular glands of male mice but not in those of females. Concurrent transient activation of the Wnt pathway prevented chronic salivary gland dysfunction following radiation by suppressing apoptosis and preserving functional salivary stem/progenitor cells. In contrast, Wnt activation 3 days before or after irradiation did not show significant beneficial effects, mainly due to failure to inhibit acute apoptosis after radiation. Excessive Wnt activation before radiation failed to inhibit apoptosis, likely due to extensive induction of mitosis and up-regulation of proapoptosis gene PUMA while that after radiation might miss the critical treatment window. Conclusion: These results suggest that concurrent transient activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway could prevent radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Pham C.D.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Purfield A.E.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Fader R.,Scott and White Hospital | Lockhart S.R.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2015

Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) is the gold standard genotyping technique for many microorganisms. This classification approach satisfies the requirements for a high-resolution, standardized, and archivable taxonomic system. Here, we describe the development of a novel MLST system to assist with the investigation of an unusual cluster of surgical site infections caused by Bipolaris spp. in postoperative cardiothoracic surgery (POCS) patients during January 2008 to December 2013 in the southeastern United States. We also used the same MLST system to perform a retrospective analysis on isolates from a 2012 Bipolaris endophthalmitis outbreak caused by a contaminated product. This MLST system showed high intraspecies discriminatory power for Bipolaris spicifera, B. hawaiiensis, and B. australiensis. Based on the relatedness of the isolates, the MLST data supported the hypothesis that infections in the POCS cluster were from different environmental sources while confirming that the endophthalmitis outbreak resulted from a point source, which was a contaminated medication. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Source

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