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Museum of Natural History, United States

Prendini L.,Scorpion Systematics Research Group
African Invertebrates | Year: 2015

The scorpion fauna of southern Africa is very diverse, especially in the arid western half of the subcontinent. New species continue to be discovered as the region is surveyed with ultraviolet light detection methods. The present contribution describes Uroplectes ansiedippenaarae sp. n., which is endemic to the Succulent Karoo Biome in the Northern Cape and Western Cape provinces of South Africa. The new species appears to be most closely related to U. variegatus (C.L. Koch, 1844), which is endemic to the Fynbos Biome in the Western Cape Province. Uroplectes ansiedippenaarae sp. n. is the smallest species of Uroplectes Peters, 1861, and among the smallest scorpion species in southern Africa, with adults ranging from 16–20 mm in total length. The addition of this new species raises the number of Uroplectes species and subspecies in South Africa to 19, and the number of endemics to 10. © FUNPEC-RP. Source


Bird T.L.,National Museum of Namibia | Bird T.L.,Colorado State University | Wharton R.A.,Texas A&M University | Prendini L.,Scorpion Systematics Research Group
Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History | Year: 2015

Arachnids of the order Solifugae (solifuges, false spiders, sun spiders, camel spiders, Walzenspinne, wind spiders) possess the largest jaws for body size among the Chelicerata. The chelicerae provide the most important character systems for solifuge systematics, including dentition and the male cheliceral flagellum, both used extensively for species delimitation and diagnosis. However, the terminology used for cheliceral characters is not standardized and often contradictory, in part because it fails to represent homologous structures among taxa. Misinterpretation of character homology may introduce errors in phylogenetic analyses concerning relationships within Solifugae and among the orders of Chelicerata. This contribution presents the first comprehensive analysis of cheliceral morphology across the order Solifugae, the aims of which were to provide a broad survey of cheliceral characters for solifuge systematics, to identify and reinterpret structures based on primary homology, to revise the terminology to be consistent with homology hypotheses, and to provide a guide to terminological synonyms and character interpretations in the literature. Chelicerae were studied in 188 exemplar species (17% of the total), representing all 12 solifuge families, 17 of the 19 subfamilies, 64 genera (46% of the total), and the full range of variation in cheliceral morphology across the order. In total, 157 species representing 49 genera and 17 subfamilies are illustrated. Hypotheses of character transformation, particularly concerning the male flagellum, and a standardized terminology, are presented. The functional morphology of the chelicerae is discussed and the role of sexually dimorphic modifications to the male chelicerae in mating behavior emphasized. The revised terminology, based on hypotheses of primary homology, will facilitate solifuge revisionary systematics and provide a stronger basis for reconstructing phylogenetic relationships within the order Solifugae and testing the phylogenetic position of the order within Chelicerata. © 2015 American Museum of Natural History. Source


Gonzalez-Santillan E.,New York University | Gonzalez-Santillan E.,Scorpion Systematics Research Group | Prendini L.,Scorpion Systematics Research Group
Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History | Year: 2013

The endemic North American vaejovid scorpion subfamily Syntropinae Kraepelin, 1905, is redefined and its component genera revised, based on a simultaneous phylogenetic analysis of 250 morphological characters and 4221 aligned DNA nucleotides from three mitochondrial and two nuclear gene markers. Tribe Stahnkeini Soleglad and Fet, 2006, is removed from Syntropinae. Tribe Paravaejovini Soleglad and Fet, 2008, and subtribe Thorelliina Soleglad and Fet, 2008, are abolished: Paravaejovini Soleglad and Fet, 2008 = Syntropinae Kraepelin, 1905, syn. nov.; Thorelliina Soleglad and Fet, 2008 = Syntropinae Kraepelin, 1905, syn. nov. Eleven genera, six newly described, are recognized within Syntropinae: Balsateres, gen. nov.; Chihuahuanus, gen. nov.; Kochius Soleglad and Fet, 2008; Konetontli, gen. nov.; Kuarapu Francke and Ponce-Saavedra, 2010; Maaykuyak, gen. nov.; Mesomexovis, gen. nov.; Paravaejovis Williams, 1980; Syntropis Kraepelin, 1900; Thorellius Soleglad and Fet, 2008; Vizcaino, gen. nov. Hoffmannius Soleglad and Fet, 2008, is abolished: Hoffmannius Soleglad and Fet, 2008 = Paravaejovis Williams, 1980, syn. nov. Lissovaejovis Ponce-Saavedra and Beutelspacher, 2001 nomen nudum = Paravaejovis Williams, 1980, syn. nov. Ten species, formerly placed in Hoffmannius, are transferred to Paravaejovis: Paravaejovis confusus (Stahnke, 1940), comb. nov.; Paravaejovis diazi (Williams, 1970), comb. nov.; Paravaejovis eusthenura (Wood, 1863), comb. nov.; Paravaejovis flavus (Banks, 1900), comb. nov. nomen dubium Paravaejovis galbus (Williams, 1970), comb. nov.; Paravaejovis gravicaudus (Williams, 1970), comb. nov.; Paravaejovis hoffmanni (Williams, 1970), comb. nov.; Paravaejovis puritanus (Gertsch, 1958), comb. nov.; Paravaejovis spinigerus (Wood, 1863), comb. nov.; Paravaejovis waeringi (Williams, 1970), comb. nov. Paravaejovis schwenkmeyeri (Williams, 1970), comb. nov., is removed from synonymy. Four species, formerly placed in Kochius, are transferred to Chihuahuanus, gen. nov.: Chihuahuanus cazieri (Williams, 1968), comb. nov.; Chihuahuanus crassimanus (Pocock, 1898), comb. nov.; Chihuahuanus kovariki (Soleglad and Fet, 2008), comb. nov.; Chihuahuanus russelli (Williams, 1971), comb. nov. Four species, formerly placed in Kochius, Thorellius, or Vaejovis C.L. Koch, 1836, are transferred to Mesomexovis, gen. nov.: Mesomexovis atenango (Francke and González-Santillán, 2007), comb. nov.; Mesomexovis oaxaca (Santibáñez-López and Sissom, 2010), comb. nov.; Mesomexovis occidentalis (Hoffmann, 1931), comb. nov.; Mesomexovis subcristatus (Pocock, 1898), comb. nov. Mesomexovis variegatus (Pocock, 1898), comb. nov., is reinstated to its original rank as species. Four subspecies are newly elevated to species: Kochius barbatus (Williams, 1971), stat. nov.; Kochius cerralvensis (Williams, 1971), stat. nov.; Kochius villosus (Williams, 1971), stat. nov.; Mesomexovis spadix (Hoffmann, 1931), comb. et stat. nov. Three subspecies are synonymized: Vaejovis diazi transmontanus Williams, 1970 = Paravaejovis diazi (Williams, 1970), syn. nov.; Vaejovis bruneus loretoensis Williams, 1971 = Kochius villosus (Williams, 1971), syn. nov.; Vaejovis hoffmanni fuscus Williams, 1970 = Paravaejovis hoffmanni (Williams, 1970), syn. nov. © 2013 American Museum of Natural History. Source


Gonzalez-Santillan E.,City University of New York | Gonzalez-Santillan E.,Scorpion Systematics Research Group | Gonzalez-Santillan E.,National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico | Gonzalez-Santillan E.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Prendini L.,Scorpion Systematics Research Group
Cladistics | Year: 2015

The first rigorous analysis of the phylogeny of the North American vaejovid scorpion subfamily Syntropinae is presented. The analysis is based on 250 morphological characters and 4221 aligned DNA nucleotides from three mitochondrial and two nuclear gene markers, for 145 terminal taxa, representing 47 species in 11 ingroup genera, and 15 species in eight outgroup genera. The monophyly and composition of Syntropinae and its component genera, as proposed by Soleglad and Fet, are tested. The following taxa are demonstrated to be para- or polyphyletic: Smeringurinae; Syntropinae; Vaejovinae; Stahnkeini; Syntropini; Syntropina; Thorelliina; Hoffmannius; Kochius; and Thorellius. The spinose (hooked or toothed) margin of the distal barb of the sclerotized hemi-mating plug is demonstrated to be a unique, unambiguous synapomorphy for Syntropinae, uniting taxa previously assigned to different subfamilies. Results of the analysis demonstrate a novel phylogenetic relationship for the subfamily, comprising six major clades and 11 genera, justify the establishment of six new genera, and they offer new insights about the systematics and historical biogeography of the subfamily, and the information content of morphological character systems. © The Willi Hennig Society 2014. Source


Monod L.,Museum dHistoire Naturelle | Monod L.,Scorpion Systematics Research Group | Harvey M.S.,Western Australian Museum | Prendini L.,Scorpion Systematics Research Group
Revue Suisse de Zoologie | Year: 2013

Three new species from the semi-arid ecosystems of Queensland, Australia, are described in the present contribution: Hormurus ischnoryctes n. spec., Hormurus macrochela n. spec., Hormurus ochyroscapter n. spec. Additionally, the discovery of the first female specimens of Hormurus longimanus (Locket, 1995) from the Northern Territory of Australia, as well as additional diagnostic characters and locality records for this species, warranted its redescription. Hormurus longimanus (Locket, 1995) is reinstated as the valid name for this species and the replacement name, Liocheles extensus Locket, 1997 placed in synonymy. Unlike most species of Hormurus and of the closely related genera, Hormiops Fage, 1933 and Liocheles Sundevall, 1883, which inhabit humid tropical ecosystems (evergreen forests), the four Australian species treated here inhabit seasonally dry (monsoon) habitats, and two of these (H. ischnoryctes and H. ochyroscapter) are the first fossorial hormurids to be recorded in Australia, and the first fossorial species of Hormurus to be described. The four species treated here appear to be relicts of an old hygrophilous lineage that sustained a major adaptive radiation during the late Tertiary aridification of the continent. Endemism and conservation issues concerning these phylogenetically valuable species are discussed in the context of high sensitivity to habitat disturbance and high risk of extinction of stenotopic species. Source

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