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Sainte-Foy-lès-Lyon, France

Kim B.,INSA Lyon | Gautier M.,INSA Lyon | Prost-Boucle S.,IRSTEA | Molle P.,IRSTEA | And 2 more authors.
Ecological Engineering

The use of vertical flow constructed wetlands (VFCW) is growing rapidly in Europe for domestic wastewater treatment in small communities. In order to improve denitrification and dephosphatation as compared to classical VFCW, the Azoé-NP® process has been developed. The process line consists of: a biological aerobic trickling filter as a primary treatment stage, ferric chloride (FeCl3) addition for phosphorus (P) treatment and two stages of partially saturated VFCW. A municipal wastewater treatment plant using Azoé-NP® process has been monitored during eight years through 44 campaigns of 24h time-proportional inlet-outlet sampling followed by analyses of TSS, BOD5, COD, TKN, NO3-N and TP concentrations. The results revealed good performances of the overall treatment. To better characterize the performance of each treatment step, five additional 24h monitoring campaigns were performed with samples taken from four different points along the treatment line. Results showed a good performance in dissolved carbon removal and nitrification by the trickling filter. The main part of the treatment was found to be done by filtration throughout the first filtration stage. Nitrate removal was achieved principally at the second filtration stage. Phosphorus migration through the first stage and its slight retention at the second stage was observed. © 2014. Source

Kim B.,INSA Lyon | Gautier M.,INSA Lyon | Olvera Palma G.,INSA Lyon | Molle P.,IRSTEA | And 2 more authors.
Water Science and Technology

The aim of this study was to characterize the efficiency of an intensified process of vertical flow constructed wetland having the following particularities: (i) biological pretreatment by trickling filter, (ii) FeCl3 injection for dissolved phosphorus removal and (iii) succession of different levels of redox conditions along the process line. A pilot-scale set-up designed to simulate a real-scale plant was constructed and operated using real wastewater. The influences of FeCl3 injection and water saturation level within the vertical flow constructed wetland stage on treatment performances were studied. Three different water saturation levels were compared by monitoring: suspended solids (SS), total phosphorus (TP), dissolved chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonium, nitrate, phosphate, iron, and manganese. The results confirmed the good overall efficiency of the process and the contribution of the trickling filter pretreatment to COD removal and nitrification. The effects of water saturation level and FeCl3 injection on phosphorus removal were evaluated by analysis of the correlations between the variables. Under unsaturated conditions, good nitrification and no denitrification were observed. Under partly saturated conditions, both nitrification and denitrification were obtained, along with a good retention of SSs. Finally, under saturated conditions, the performance was decreased for almost all parameters. © IWA Publishing 2015. Source

Kim B.,INSA Lyon | Gautier M.,INSA Lyon | Molle P.,IRSTEA | Michel P.,SCIRPE | Gourdon R.,INSA Lyon
Ecological Engineering

The aim of the study was to determine the effects on treatment efficiency of oxidation-reduction (redox) conditions that are caused by different water saturation levels within vertical-flow constructed wetlands (VFCW), with specific attention to phosphorus (P) retention. The study was conducted by monitoring over 18 weeks a pilot-scale system consisting of a biological aerobic trickling filter as a biological pre-treatment step, followed by ferric chloride (FeCl3) addition for phosphate removal and a stage of VFCW. By adjusting the water saturation level, the VFCW was operated successively under fully unsaturated, partly saturated, completely saturated (flooded), and then again unsaturated conditions. Redox potentials (Eh) were measured at three different levels within the VFCW. Results revealed that Eh was logically affected by the water-saturation level and the feeding-resting periods. Treatment efficiency was very good under fully unsaturated and partly saturated conditions. Under flooded conditions, the performance of the filter declined when the flood was maintained for around one week. However, VFCW regained its previous efficiency after the effluent was drained out and aerobic conditions were restored, indicating that the system was resistant and robust enough that periodical flooding did not affect its performance afterwards. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

Kim B.,INSA Lyon | Gautier M.,INSA Lyon | Rivard C.,European Synchrotron Radiation Facility | Sanglar C.,CNRS Institute of Analytical Sciences | And 2 more authors.
Environmental Science and Technology

This study was conducted to determine phosphorus (P) species captured in a vertical-flow constructed wetland (VFCW) system combining a trickling filter followed by FeCl3 injection for phosphate coagulation. Suspended solids (SS) thus formed accumulated over time at the VFCW surface and transformed into a sludge deposit layer, which was shown to concentrate most of the P captured in the system. In order to investigate the effect of aging on P species, representative SS and sludge samples were taken from a wastewater treatment plant that had been in operation for 8 years and analyzed using P fractionation, solution 31P NMR spectroscopy, and P and Fe K-edge XANES spectroscopy. A partial mineralization of organic matter was shown by comparing organic carbon contents of SS and sludge materials. Chemical fractionations combined with P and Fe K-edge XANES spectroscopy showed that P was predominantly bound to iron within both samples in the form of ferric phosphate, rather than adsorbed onto ferric oxyhydroxide. Calcium-bound P was more significantly observed in sludge than in SS, suggesting that aging induced the recombination of part of the organic and iron-bound P species into calcium-bound forms, as a possible consequence of the partial mineralization of organic matter. © 2015 American Chemical Society. Source

Kim B.,INSA Lyon | Gautier M.,INSA Lyon | Michel P.,SCIRPE | Gourdon R.,INSA Lyon
Water Science and Technology

The use of vertical flow constructed wetlands (VFCWs) is well developed in France and other countries for the treatment of wastewaters from small communities. The patented Azoé® process has been developed by a French company, SCIRPE, in order to improve denitrification and phosphorus removal as compared to classical VFCWs. It includes a biological trickling filter pretreatment followed by two stages of partially flooded VFCW. The performances of partially flooded VFCW are well demonstrated for the removal of organic matter and nitrogen. The system is now being considered for phosphorus removal as well. In this article, sludge and granular materials sampled from the filters of a municipal plant where the Azoé® system has been operated for 8 years were analyzed in order to provide data that may contribute to a better understanding of the dynamics of phosphorus retention. Elemental analyses showed that phosphorus was predominantly captured in the sludge layer accumulated at the surface of the first stage. The progressive mineralization of the sludge over time was also clearly highlighted. The phosphate phases were mainly associated with iron and calcium. The transport of phosphorus via the migration of fine particles through the porous medium in the first stage was also observed. © IWA Publishing 2013. Source

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