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George Town, Malaysia

Tran N.,Scientist | Nguyen A.,Freelance Research Analyst and Translator | Wilson N.L.W.,Auburn University

Chloramphenicol is a broad-spectrum antibiotic that was historically used as a veterinary drug for farm animal disease treatment purposes and it is currently used in human treatment; however, this is a banned substance. This paper investigates the impact of advancing chloramphenicol analytical standards on crustacean imports in the EU15, Japan, and North America. The paper extends the work of Disdier and Marette (2010) by exploring the differential effect of standards on products. We use a Heckman sample selection specification to address zero trade at the product level. We show that submarkets function differently and respond differentially to the standard. Additionally, we show that the level of disaggregation matters in gravity modeling. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Gebrekidan B.,Mekelle University | Tegegne A.,Scientist | Regassa F.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology
Animal Reproduction Science

Retrospective studies were conducted in Kafta-Humera and Wukro areas of Tigray region of Ethiopia. A retrospective study was carried out on 12 herds consisting 2144 Begait cattle from pastoral and agro-pastoral areas to assess herd composition and calf-crop. To evaluate the reproductive performance, 210 cows were selected randomly from pastoral, agro-pastoral, confinement and crop-livestock production systems. All necessary data of reproductive parameters were collected through questionnaire surveys, group discussions and follow-up observations. SPSS software was applied to analyze the data. The result of the present study showed that the average calf-crop of 53% and 42.1% and annual calf mortality rate of 20.8% and 9.4%, were observed for pastoral and agro-pastoral production systems, respectively. The mean age at first service (AFS), age at first calving (AFC) and calving interval (CI) in months were 34.9, 43.9 and 12.9 in pastoral, 35.9, 45.0 and 14.0 in agro-pastoral, 34.4, 44.9 and 15.0 in confinement and 40.5, 49.5 and 19.6 in crop-livestock production systems, respectively. AFC and CI were significantly (P < 0.05) affected by site and production system. Significantly longer AFS, AFC and CI were noticed in crop-livestock system than in the other 3 production systems. However, CI was not affected by age and parity. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source

Prasad V.P.,Scientist | Simpson D.A.,Acting Keeper

Different varieties of Pycreus flavidus (Retz.) T. Koyama reported from India were all found to be based on continuous variations of morphological characters. Hence all are treated here as P. flavidus. Source

The relationship between both interstitial and blood glucose remains a debated topic, on which there is still no consensus. The experimental evidence suggests that blood and interstitial fluid glucose levels are correlated by a kinetic equilibrium, which as a consequence has a time and magnitude gradient in glucose concentration between blood and interstitium. Furthermore, this equilibrium can be perturbed by several physiological effects (such as foreign body response, wound-healing effect, etc.), with a consequent reduction of interstitial fluid glucose versus blood glucose correlation. In the present study, the impact of operating in the interstitium on continuous glucose monitoring systems (CGMs) will be discussed in depth, both for the application of CGMs in the management of diabetes and in other critical areas, such as tight glycaemic control in critically ill patients. Source

Meena A.S.,Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute | Kumar R.,Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute | Kumari R.,Scientist | Jyotsana B.,Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences

Polymorphism in the melatonin receptor 1A (MTNR1A) is associated with seasonal reproduction of sheep. Genetic polymorphism in MTNR1A gene was investigated in 4 Indian sheep breeds reared in semi-arid and arid region of the Rajasthan. In this study, blood samples were collected from 171 animals. DNA was extracted from white blood cells. The PCR product (824bp) of exon II fragment of sheep MTNR1A gene was amplified. PCR products were digested separately with 2 restriction endonucleases, viz. MnII and RsaI. Polymorphism was detected at both loci of MTNR1A gene. At MnII locus, allele frequency for Magra, Garole, Malpura and Avikalin breed was found as 0.74, 0.74, 0.78, and 0.84 for M allele and 0.26, 0.26, 0.22, 0.16 for N allele, respectively. At RsaI locus, allele frequency was found as 0.90, 0.83, 0.69, and 0.59, for R allele and 0.10, 0.17, 0.31, 0.41 for r allele, respectively. It was concluded that the frequencies of 'M' and 'R' alleles of MTNR1A were higher in Indian sheep breeds. Source

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