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Polacek V.,Scientific Veterinary Institute Novi Sad | Aleksic-Kovacevic S.,University of Belgrade
Acta Veterinaria | Year: 2016

Although Mycobacterium avium subspecies are generally not considered food pathogens, the infections caused by these particular nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) can represent a serious threat to immunocompromised population. Additionally, infections with a member of Mycobacterium Avium Compex (MAC) can affect the efficiency of BCG vaccines used for the humans. In infected animals, M. avium may be present in different tissues without apparent clinical symptoms and macroscopic lesions. Veterinary meat inspection would then fail to recognize infected animals and such meat and meat products thereof could enter the human diet. The aim of this paper is also to analyze the current control policy in Europe according to infections of pigs with the members of MAC, and point out the risks for public health. By analyzing a large number of meat samples and other dietary nutrients, different groups of authors have provided evidence to support the hypothesis that M. avium is present in the everyday environment. Therefore, food as a source of infection with mycobacteria should not be ignored. The control of mycobacteria requires a better diagnostic approach, having in mind recent positive cases of M. avium subspecies hominissuis (MAH) in an increasing number of exported pigs from EU countries to Serbia. The introduction of reliable diagnostic methods for MAH could result in decreasing the occurrence of infection in pigs, as well as in humans, having in mind that WHO reported 10 million new cases of tuberculosis-mycobacteriosis in the human population in 2015 with 21% of these cases occurring in immunocompromised individuals and children.


Lupulovic D.,Scientific Veterinary Institute Novi Sad | Martin-Acebes M.A.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigaciones Agrarias | Lazic S.,Scientific Veterinary Institute Novi Sad | Alonso-Padilla J.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigaciones Agrarias | And 4 more authors.
Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases | Year: 2011

West Nile virus (WNV), the most widely distributed flavivirus worldwide, has lately reemerged in Europe, causing worrisome outbreaks in humans and horses. Serological analysis by enzyme-linked immunoassay and plaque reduction neutralization test showed for the first time in Serbia that 12% of 349 horses presented specific neutralizing WNV antibodies, which in one case also cross-neutralized Usutu virus (USUV). This is the first time that anti-USUV high neutralizing antibody titers are reported in horses. All these data indicate that WNV and USUV are circulating in the region and advise on the convenience of implementing surveillance programs. © Copyright 2011, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: KBBE-2007-2-4-03 | Award Amount: 3.87M | Year: 2008

The concept of VITAL is the integrated monitoring and control of contamination of the European food supply chain by pathogenic viruses. VITAL will use advanced methods for virus detection throughout selected food supply chains from farm to market, to gather data on virus contamination of food and environmental sources suitable for quantitative viral risk assessment. Supply chains will be monitored for the presence of indicator viruses commonly found in faecal contamination events. These viruses can be distinguished into strains of human and animal origin, which will indicate contamination from a specific source. Modelling tools will be developed to define the quantitative viral risk for each scenario, and to assess foodborne viral risks for determining high risk situations and efficacy of interventions. Modular process risk models will be developed to build up specific HACCP recommendations. Recent developments in risk management will be evaluated for their use in reducing foodborne viral infections. Survival of viruses in foods will be modelled, and disinfection procedures used in the food industry will be evaluated, to elucidate the critical points where virus contamination may be controlled. VITAL will disseminate its findings by producing handbooks and guidelines on appropriate control practices, and communicate requirements necessary for establishing reliable monitoring of food chains for viruses on a regular or as-needed basis. Therefore VITAL will provide to Europe a framework for monitoring, risk modelling, and procedures for control of foodborne virus contamination, which will be applicable to any virus, whether existing, emerging or re-emerging, that poses the danger of being transmitted by food. Implementation of such a framework of preventive or proactive virus contamination management will form a first line of defence against transmission of foodborne viral diseases in Europe.


Ljubojevic D.,Scientific Veterinary Institute Novi Sad | Radosavljevic V.,Institute of Veterinary Medicine of Serbia | Puvaca N.,University of Novi Sad | Zivkov Balos M.,Scientific Veterinary Institute Novi Sad | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Food Composition and Analysis | Year: 2015

Fish meal and fish oil represent main protein and lipid sources in fish feed, but there is a growing need for sustainable alternatives to these ingredients. In this study, four isolipid extruded diets for carp (. Cyprinus carpio L.) were used: ROHP (rapeseed oil-high protein), FOHP (fish oil-high protein); ROLP (rapeseed oil-low protein) and FOLP (fish oil-low protein). The trial lasted 75 days. No statistically significant effect of oil source or protein level or interactions of these factors was observed in final body weight, growth parameters or in feed conversion ratio. Protein sparing effect and omega-3 sparing effect were observed in the present study. The results of this experiment showed no negative effects on growth parameters, or major detrimental effects on fatty acid composition of muscle tissue in common carp when fish fed with diets supplemented with rapeseed oil (RO). Furthermore, an enhanced protein sparing effect was observed, when fish fed with lower protein diets, but significant accumulation of crude lipid was observed as a result of lowering protein level. The results of this study showed that diets supplemented with rapeseed oil can be used successfully in common carp cage production. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.


PubMed | Pasteur Institute, Institute of Veterinary Medicine of Serbia, Veterinary Directorate, Scientific Veterinary Institute Novi Sad and Veterinary Institute Kraljevo
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Zoonoses and public health | Year: 2016

Rabies is one of the oldest known zoonotic diseases that has significant impact on public health, but still remains neglected in Serbia. Rabies virus can infect humans and other mammals and causes inflammation of the brain associated with encephalomyelitis and neurological symptoms. In 2010, Veterinary Directorate (national Competent Authority for animal health in Serbia) has started multi-annual project of oral rabies vaccination of foxes and other wild carnivores (e.g. jackals), as support of long-term programme of eradication of rabies in Serbia, co-funded by EU (financed by Instrument for Pre-Accession Assistance). Monitoring of the effectiveness of oral vaccination campaigns has been carried out in continuation from 2011 and was based on: (i) post-mortem laboratory examination of brain tissue of target animals (foxes, jackals and other carnivores) by fluorescent antibody test (FAT), (ii) detection of antibodies against rabies virus in serum samples by ELISA and (iii) detection of tetracycline biomarker in the mandibles for the evaluation of vaccine bait uptake. From September 2011 to May 2014, the total number of 4943 brain tissue samples, 4241 sera and 4971 mandibles were analysed. Confirmed rabies-positive brains decreased from 10 in 2011/2012 to 6 in 2012/2013 and eventually to 1 positive case in 2013/2014. The seroconversion rate increased from 10.48% (133/1269) in 2011/2012 to 20.11% (362/1800) in 2012/2013 and 42.23% (495/1172) in 2013/2014. Along with the seroconversion, the number of detected tetracycline-positive mandibles demonstrated an increasing tendency in the same period, being 49.67% (682/1373) in 2011/2012, 62.60% (1294/2067) in 2012/2013 and 90.33% (1383/1531) in the monitoring programme carried out in 2013/2014. Presented results confirmed that ORV of foxes and other wildlife in Serbia against rabies was successful and characterized by steady increase of vaccine baits uptake and immunization of animals.


Kozoderovic G.,Institute of Public Health of Vojvodina | Velhner M.,Scientific Veterinary Institute Novi Sad | Jelesic Z.,Institute of Public Health of Vojvodina | Golic N.,University of Belgrade | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents | Year: 2012

The prevalence of quinolone resistance was studied in Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis isolates collected during 2005-2010 in Southern Bačka County, Serbia. A total of 878 clinical isolates were examined, among which 19 (2.2%) nalidixic acid (NAL)-resistant S. Enteritidis were detected by selection on agar plates containing 64 mg/L NAL. Antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates was tested by the agar dilution method. According to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) breakpoints, ciprofloxacin (CIP) resistance was not present in the strains. Multiple drug resistance was rare, and resistance to NAL was most often present as a single resistance property. All but one NAL-resistant S. Enteritidis showed reduced susceptibility to CIP [i.e. minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ≥ 0.125 mg/L]. This isolate of human origin had a CIP MIC of 0.064 mg/L and DNA sequencing revealed that it contained an Asp87Gly gyrA mutation. Most of the remaining isolates had MICs for NAL and CIP of 256 mg/L and 0.256 mg/L, respectively. Mutations in the Asp87 codon resulted in substitutions to Asn in most of the isolates, but Asp87Gly and Ser83Phe exchanges were also detected. No mutations were present in the gyrB, parC or parE genes. Although CIP resistance was absent, reduced susceptibility characterised by mutations in gyrA was apparent among S. Enteritidis isolates from Serbia. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy.


Petrovic T.,Scientific Veterinary Institute Novi Sad | Blazquez A.B.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigacion Y Tecnologia Agraria Y Alimentaria Inia | Lupulovic D.,Scientific Veterinary Institute Novi Sad | Lazic G.,Scientific Veterinary Institute Novi Sad | And 5 more authors.
Eurosurveillance | Year: 2013

West Nile virus (WNV), a neurovirulent mosquitotransmissible zoonotic virus, has caused recent outbreaks in Europe, including Serbia from August until October 2012. Although humans can be infected, birds are the main natural WNV reservoir. To assess WNV circulation in northern Serbia, 133 wild birds were investigated. These comprised resident and migratory birds, collected between January and September 2012 in the Vojvodina province. The birds belonged to 45 species within 27 families. Blood sera (n=92) and pooled tissues from respective birds (n=81) were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), plaque reduction neutralisation test (PRNT) and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). WNV antibodies were detected in seven (8%) sera: four from Mute Swans (Cygnus olor), two from White-tailed Eagles (Haliaeetus albicillas), and one from a Common Pheasant (Phasianus colchicus). Five sera neutralised WNV but not Usutu virus. For the first time in Serbia, WNV RNA was detected by RT-qPCR in pooled tissue samples of eight respective birds. WNV RNA was also derived from an additional bird, after a serum sample resulted infective in cell culture. The total nine WNV RNA positive birds included three Northern Goshawks (Accipiter gentilis), two White-tailed Eagles, one Legged Gull (Larus michahelis), one Hooded Crow (Corvus cornix), one Bearded Parrot-bill (Panarus biramicus), and one Common Pheasant. Phylogenetic analysis of partial E region sequences showed the presence of, at least, two lineage 2 Serbian clusters closely related to those responsible for recent human and animal outbreaks in Greece, Hungary and Italy. Full genomic sequence from a goshawk isolate corroborated this data. These results confirm WNV circulation in Serbia and highlight the risk of infection for humans and horses, pointing to the need for implementing WNV surveillance programmes.


PubMed | Specialized Veterinary Institute Zrenjanin, Institute of Public Health of Vojvodina, Scientific Veterinary Institute Novi Sad, Specialized Veterinary Institute Pancevo and 5 more.
Type: | Journal: Molecular and cellular probes | Year: 2016

Efforts to detect West Nile virus (WNV) in the Vojvodina province, northern Serbia, commenced with human and mosquito surveillance in 2005, followed by horse (2009) and wild bird (2012) surveillance. The knowledge obtained regarding WNV circulation, combined with the need for timely detection of virus activity and risk assessment resulted in the implementation of a national surveillance programme integrating mosquito, horse and bird surveillance in 2014. From 2013, the system showed highly satisfactory results in terms of area specificity (the capacity to indicate the spatial distribution of the risk for human cases of West Nile neuroinvasive disease - WNND) and sensitivity to detect virus circulation even at the enzootic level. A small number (n=50) of Culex pipiens (pipiens and molestus biotypes, and their hybrids) females analysed per trap/night, combined with a high number of specimens in the sample, provided variable results in the early detection capacity at different administrative levels (NUTS2 versus NUTS3). The clustering of infected mosquitoes, horses, birds and human cases of WNND in 2014-2015 was highly significant, following the south-west to north-east direction in Vojvodina (NUTS2 administrative level). Human WNND cases grouped closest with infected mosquitoes in 2014, and with wild birds/mosquitoes in 2015. In 2014, sentinel horses showed better spatial correspondence with human WNND cases than sentinel chickens. Strong correlations were observed between the vector index values and the incidence of human WNND cases recorded at the NUTS2 and NUTS3 levels. From 2010, West Nile virus was detected in mosquitoes sampled at 43 different trap stations across Vojvodina. At 14 stations (32.56%), WNV was detected in two different (consecutive or alternate) years, at 2 stations in 3 different years, and in 1 station during 5 different years. Based on these results, integrated surveillance will be progressively improved to allow evidence-based adoption of preventive public health and mosquito control measures.


Jaksic S.,Scientific Veterinary Institute Novi Sad | Abramovic B.,University of Novi Sad | Jajic I.,University of Novi Sad | Balos M.Z.,Scientific Veterinary Institute Novi Sad | And 3 more authors.
Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology | Year: 2012

A survey was undertaken to determine total fumonisins (FUMs) and deoxynivalenol (DON) in wheat and maize. Out of 75 wheat samples, 50.7 % contained FUMs in the span from 27 to 614 ng/g, while 65.3 % contained DON in the span from 64 to 1,604 ng/g. Out of 24 maize samples, contents of FUMs in one and of DON in three samples were above the maximal limit. This is the one of rare reports of the natural co-occurrence of FUMs and DON in wheat and maize, and the first report of their correlation in different wheat cultivars. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012.


PubMed | University of Novi Sad and Scientific veterinary institute Novi Sad
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Food additives & contaminants. Part B, Surveillance | Year: 2016

The aim of this study was to determine the level of organochlorine (OC) pesticides in 57 samples of canned tuna and 31 samples of canned sardines in vegetable oil, collected from supermarkets in Serbia. OC pesticides -HCH, -HCH, -HCH, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), DDE, DDD, dielderin, endosulfane I, endosulfane II, endosulan sulfate, endrin, endrin ketone, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, lindane, aldrin, metoxichlor, cis-chlordane and trans-chlordane were determined using a GS-MS method. The highest concentrations (gkg

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