Lima, Peru

The Universidad Científica del Sur or Scientific University of the South is a private institution of higher education, located at 19 km south from the city of Lima, nearby Pantanos de Villa Reserved Zone. The university was founded and recognized in 1998 by education representatives, leaded by José Carlos Dextre. It started activities by offering Medicine and Systems Engineering programmes. Their curriculum was characterized by personalized education and early introduction to the career.The university had presented an important growth in population and in academic offer. Today, it has 18 bachelor and 13 master’s degrees programmes, as well as several specialization courses. Wikipedia.

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News Article | April 26, 2017

Torrential rains pummelled Peru’s northern coastal desert in February and March, triggering floods that killed at least 113 people and destroyed some 40,000 homes. As families grapple with their losses and government officials tally the cost of repair and reconstruction, scientists are gearing up for an unusual opportunity to study ecosystems that go decades without much rain. The rains were spurred by an unusual ‘coastal’ El Niño climate pattern, in which warm water pooled off the coast of southern Ecuador and northern Peru — more so than during the much larger 2015–16 El Niño. Rains fell in both countries, but the human toll was highest in Peru’s normally parched northern desert. In the now-greening land, plants are growing, bird populations are shifting and rivers are moving sediments and pollution in ways they haven’t done for two decades. What scientists learn as they descend on the region could aid conservation efforts and help people and government officials to prepare for severe weather events. “Except for the impacts on the people,” says biologist Juan Torres of La Molina National Agrarian University in Lima, “this is a meteoro­logically enchanting moment.” Once roads are passable, Torres will visit field sites that he studied after the powerful 1997–98 El Niño, which also soaked the region. At that time, Torres found wild relatives of domesticated crops — including tomatoes, peppers, potatoes and squash — that had sprouted from dormant seeds. This year, he will again catalogue wild plants, along with the crops that farmers choose to grow on lands made fertile by the flooding. Part of the northern desert is irrigated farmland, but there are also patches of a dry forest that has been devastated in recent years by industrial agriculture, urban sprawl and the charcoal trade. Oliver Whaley at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, in London, has studied Peru’s dry forests for 25 years, and hopes that the rain will bring respite to the ecosystem. One important tree species, known locally as huarango (Prosopis spp.), has been in rapid decline, in part because of pressure from insects and a fungus. The floods may have washed the insect pests away. Peruvian botanist Ana Juárez will survey the area further with Whaley in May, but has not seen any insects on the trees near her since the rains. That’s a good sign, but the ongoing destruction of the dry forest seems to have exacerbated erosion and flooding from the storms. Soil carried by the floods surged down normally tranquil rivers. Satellite images show the Tumbes and Chira rivers overflowing and spreading nutrient-rich sediment over swathes of farmland. That’s what the rivers are supposed to do, says Jorge Abad, a civil engineer at the University of Engineering and Technology in Lima. But these floods caused damage because the rivers have been channelled, dammed and dredged without considering sediment flow, he says, adding that better modelling would allow engineers to improve flood control and reduce future disaster risk. The rains have also washed rubbish, metals and chemicals from towns, mining operations and farmlands into the Pacific Ocean. That worries Carlos Zavalaga of the Scientific University of the South in Lima, who studies the seabirds that live along the Peruvian coast. Warm coastal waters can drive out schools of Peruvian anchovies (Engraulis ringens), robbing guano-producing birds of their main food supply and leading them to hunt elsewhere. As of February, two-thirds of the Guanay cormorants (Phalacrocorax bougainvillii) at Punta San Juan, on the south-central coast, had abandoned their nests. Besides the impact on the ecosystem, losing these birds will reduce the accumulation of guano, which is still mined in the area. Zavalaga plans to survey the situation in the coming weeks and to analyse bird blood and feathers for contaminants from the washout. No one predicted this year’s disaster until it was too late. Scientists had expected the major El Niño of 2015–16, but that system’s effects were muted in South America. And even though this year’s rainfall is comparable to that due to the large 1997–98 El Niño, the causes are different. That raises questions for climate scientists, says Rodney Martínez, an oceanographer at the International Center for Research on the El Niño Phenomenon in Guayaquil, Ecuador. He says that scientists need a better understanding of these atypical coastal El Niños, which may also have occurred in the 1920s and 1970s, and how they relate to larger ocean cycles. But studies could be undermined by a lack of funding. Ocean-monitoring buoys set by Peruvian and Ecuadorian scientists after the 1997–98 El Niño were vandalized and never repaired, and the Pacific-wide Tropical Atmosphere Ocean instrument array is suffering from deterioration and budget cuts. “What we’ve seen in Ecuador and Peru is resounding evidence of the importance of managing ecosystems for the prevention of extreme events,” Martínez says. “That still is not fully included in risk management.”

Altenbach H.,Otto Von Guericke University of Magdeburg | Eremeyev V.A.,Otto Von Guericke University of Magdeburg | Eremeyev V.A.,Scientific University of the South | Morozov N.F.,Saint Petersburg State University
International Journal of Engineering Science | Year: 2012

We discuss the influence of surface viscoelasticity effects on the effective properties of materials such as effective bending stiffness of plates or shells. Viscoelastic properties in the vicinity of the surface can differ from the properties of the bulk material. This difference influences the behavior of nanostructural elements. In particular, the surface viscoelastic stresses are responsible for the size-depended dissipation of nanosized structures. Using the extension of the Gurtin-Murdoch model and the correspondence principle of linear viscoelasticity we derive the expressions of the stress and couple stress resultant tensors for shear deformable plates and shells. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Eremeyev V.A.,Otto Von Guericke University of Magdeburg | Eremeyev V.A.,Scientific University of the South | Pietraszkiewicz W.,Szewalski Institute of Fluid Flow Machinery
International Journal of Solids and Structures | Year: 2012

We extend the material symmetry group of the non-linear polar-elastic continuum by taking into account microstructure curvature tensors as well as different transformation properties of polar and axial tensors. The group consists of an ordered triple of tensors which makes the strain energy density of polar-elastic continuum invariant under change of reference placement. An analog of the Noll rule is established. Four simple specific cases of the group with corresponding reduced forms of the strain energy density are discussed. Definitions of polar-elastic fluids, solids, liquid crystals and subfluids are given in terms of members of the symmetry group. Within polar-elastic solids we discuss in more detail isotropic, hemitropic, cubic-symmetric, transversely isotropic, and orthotropic materials and give explicitly corresponding reduced representations of the strain energy density. For physically linear polar-elastic solids, when the density becomes a quadratic function of strain measures, reduced representations of the density are established for monoclinic, orthotropic, cubic-symmetric, hemitropic and isotropic materials in terms of appropriate joint scalar invariants of stretch, wryness and undeformed structure curvature tensors. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Eremeyev V.A.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg | Eremeyev V.A.,Scientific University of the South | Pietraszkiewicz W.,Szewalski Institute of Fluid Flow Machinery
Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids | Year: 2011

The resultant, two-dimensional thermomechanics of shells undergoing diffusionless, displacive phase transitions of martensitic type of the shell material is developed. In particular, we extend the resultant surface entropy inequality by introducing two temperature fields on the shell base surface: the referential mean temperature and its deviation, with corresponding dual fields: the referential entropy and its deviation. Additionally, several extra surface fields related to the deviation fields are introduced to assure that the resultant surface entropy inequality be direct implication of the entropy inequality of continuum thermomechanics. The corresponding constitutive equations for thermoelastic and thermoviscoelastic shells of differential type are worked out. Within this formulation of shell thermomechanics, we also derive the thermodynamic continuity condition along the curvilinear phase interface and propose the kinetic equation allowing one to determine position and quasistatic motion of the interface relative to the base surface. The theoretical model is illustrated by two axisymmetric numerical examples of stretching and bending of the circular plate undergoing phase transition within the range of small deformations. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Altenbach H.,Otto Von Guericke University of Magdeburg | Eremeyev V.A.,Otto Von Guericke University of Magdeburg | Eremeyev V.A.,Scientific University of the South
International Journal of Plasticity | Year: 2014

Nonlinear micropolar continuum model allows to describe complex micro-structured media, for example, polycrystals, foams, cellular solids, lattices, masonries, particle assemblies, magnetic rheological fluids, liquid crystals, etc., for which the rotational degrees of freedom of material particles are important. The constitutive equations of the hyperelastic nonlinear micropolar continuum can be expressed using the strain energy density depending on two strain measures. In the case of inelastic behavior the constitutive equations of the micropolar continuum have more complicated structure, the stress and couple stress tensors as well as other quantities depend on the history of strain measures. In what follows we discuss the constitutive equations of the nonlinear micropolar continuum using strain rates. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Altenbach J.,Forderstedter Str. 28 | Altenbach H.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg | Eremeyev V.A.,Scientific University of the South
Archive of Applied Mechanics | Year: 2010

One of the research direction of Horst Lippmann during his whole scientific career was devoted to the possibilities to explain complex material behavior by generalized continua models. A representative of such models is the Cosserat continuum. The basic idea of this model is the independence of translations and rotations (and by analogy, the independence of forces and moments). With the help of this model some additional effects in solid and fluid mechanics can be explained in a more satisfying manner. They are established in experiments, but not presented by the classical equations. In this paper the Cosserat-type theories of plates and shells are debated as a special application of the Cosserat theory. © 2009 Springer-Verlag.

Altenbach H.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg | Eremeyev V.A.,Scientific University of the South
International Journal of Non-Linear Mechanics | Year: 2010

Within the framework of the direct approach to the plate theory we consider the infinitesimal deformations of a plate made of hyperelastic materials taking into account the non-homogeneously distributed initial stresses. Here we consider the plate as a material surface with 5 degrees of freedom (3 translations and 2 rotations). Starting from the equations of the non-linear elastic body and describing the small deformations superposed on the finite deformation we present the two-dimensional constitutive equations for a plate. The influence of initial stresses in the bulk material on the plate behavior is considered. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Altenbach H.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg | Eremeyev V.A.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg | Eremeyev V.A.,Scientific University of the South
International Journal of Engineering Science | Year: 2011

Below we discuss the derivation of the governing nonlinear shell equations taking into account the surface stresses. The surface effects are significant for the modeling of some structures as nanofilms, nanoporous materials and other nano-size structures. In particular, the surface stresses are responsible for the size effect, i.e. dependence of the material properties on the specimen size. The theory of elasticity with surface stresses is applied to the modeling of shells with nano-scaled thickness. It will be shown that the resultant stress and couple stress tensors can be represented as a sum of two terms. The first term in the sum depends on the stress distribution in the bulk material while the second one relates to the surface stresses. Hence, the resultant stress and couple stress tensors are linear functions with respect to the surface stresses. As an example the effective stiffness properties of a linear elastic Cosserat shells taking into account the surface stresses are presented. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

This research report a preliminary analysis of the internal validity of the short form of the Social Problem Solving Inventory-Revised in a sample of 366 university students from a private university in Lima, Peru. It was compared the correlations short-long form and the coefficients of internal consistency with established theoretical estimates as a baseline; additionally, the correlations were corrected for correlated errors. After of apply the adjustments to the observed coefficients, the results indicate high shared variance on the subscales and acceptable reliability coefficients, except for Positive Orientation to Problems score. The psychometric support is acceptable, but it is requested an ongoing research for get reliability and validity evidences.

Niklander S.,Scientific University of the South
Iberian Conference on Information Systems and Technologies, CISTI | Year: 2016

The aim of this work is to thematically classify the messages posted by the @GobiernodeChile and @Segegob Twitter accounts. The study was conducted in two distinct periods, but both characterized by having attracted media attention for being the last two cases of corruption in Chile. The first one is the Penta case, which allowed the irregular financing of election campaigns of politicians mainly from right-wing. The second case is about influence peddling involving the son of President Bachelet. This is important because if we detect an inequity in the treatment of both cases, we can see that this platform is not built as a universal public space where subjects have no place. © 2016 AISTI.

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