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Huang K.,University of Tennessee at Knoxville | Fu J.S.,University of Tennessee at Knoxville | Prikhodko V.Y.,Oak Ridge National Laboratory | Storey J.M.,Oak Ridge National Laboratory | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres | Year: 2015

Development of reliable source emission inventories is particularly needed to advance the understanding of the origin of Arctic haze using chemical transport modeling. This study develops a regional anthropogenic black carbon (BC) emission inventory for the Russian Federation, the largest country by land area in the Arctic Council. Activity data from combination of local Russia information and international resources, emission factors based on either Russian documents or adjusted values for local conditions, and other emission source data are used to approximate the BC emissions. Emissions are gridded at a resolution of 0.1° × 0.1° and developed into a monthly temporal profile. Total anthropogenic BC emission of Russia in 2010 is estimated to be around 224 Gg. Gas flaring, a commonly ignored black carbon source, contributes a significant fraction of 36.2% to Russia's total anthropogenic BC emissions. Other sectors, i.e., residential, transportation, industry, and power plants, contribute 25.0%, 20.3%, 13.1%, and 5.4%, respectively. Three major BC hot spot regions are identified: the European part of Russia, the southern central part of Russia where human population densities are relatively high, and the Urals Federal District where Russia's major oil and gas fields are located but with sparse human population. BC simulations are conducted using the hemispheric version of Community Multi-scale Air Quality Model with emission inputs from a global emission database EDGAR (Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research)-HTAPv2 (Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution) and EDGAR-HTAPv2 with its Russian part replaced by the newly developed Russian BC emissions, respectively. The simulation using the new Russian BC emission inventory could improve 30-65% of absorption aerosol optical depth measured at the AERONET sites in Russia throughout the whole year as compared to that using the default HTAPv2 emissions. At the four ground monitoring sites (Zeppelin, Barrow, Alert, and Tiksi) in the Arctic Circle, surface BC simulations are improved the most during the Arctic haze periods (October-March). The poor performance of Arctic BC simulations in previous studies may be partly ascribed to the Russian BC emissions built on out-of-date and/or missing information, which could result in biases to both emission rates and the spatial distribution of emissions. This study highlights that the impact of Russian emissions on the Arctic haze has likely been underestimated, and its role in the Arctic climate system needs to be reassessed. The Russian black carbon emission source data generated in this study can be obtained via http://abci.ornl.gov/download.shtml or http://acs.engr.utk.edu/Data.php. Key Points A regional anthropogenic black carbon emission inventory is developed for Russia Simulation of Arctic and Russian black carbon has been significantly improved The role of Russian emissions on Arctic BC is underestimated in previous studies. © 2015. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

Romanov A.,Scientific Research Institute for Atmospheric Air Protection | Sloss L.,Scientific Research Institute for Atmospheric Air Protection | Jozewicz W.,Scientific Research Institute for Atmospheric Air Protection
Energy and Fuels | Year: 2012

This paper presents results from the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)-coordinated project, "Reducing Mercury Emissions from Coal Combustion in the Energy Sector", implemented in the Russian Federation in 2009-2010. A profile of the coal-fired power sector of the Russian Federation, which includes some 120 power plants, is provided and analyzed. Information on consumption and main characteristics of coals from major and minor coal basins burnt for energy generation is presented. The paper also demonstrates results of model and experimental mercury emission factor development for selected high-installed capacity power plants of 1.9 and 3.8 GW located in the European and Asian parts of the Russian Federation. Mercury emissions are projected to increase by 2030 largely based on projected national energy consumption and mercury content of coal feedstocks. Remaining challenges to improve data quality and considerations for further research are outlined. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

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