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Bosisio Parini, Italy

Pellegrino P.,University of Milan | Clementi E.,Scientific Institute Irccs E Medea | Clementi E.,National Research Council Italy | Radice S.,University of Milan
Autoimmunity Reviews | Year: 2015

Adjuvants are compounds incorporated into vaccines to enhance immunogenicity and the development of these molecules has become an expanding field of research in the last decades. Adding an adjuvant to a vaccine antigen leads to several advantages, including dose sparing and the induction of a more rapid, broader and strong immune response. Several of these molecules have been approved, including aluminium salts, oil-in-water emulsions (MF59, AS03 and AF03), virosomes and AS04.Adjuvants have recently been implicated in the new syndrome named "ASIA-Autoimmune/inflammatory Syndrome Induced by Adjuvants", which describes an umbrella of clinical conditions including post-vaccination adverse reactions.Recent studies implicate a web of mechanisms in the development of vaccine adjuvant-induced autoimmune diseases, in particular, in those associated with aluminium-based compounds. Fewer and unsystematised data are instead available about other adjuvants, despite recent evidence indicating that vaccines with different adjuvants may also cause specific autoimmune adverse reactions possible towards different pathogenic mechanisms.This topic is of importance as the specific mechanism of action of each single adjuvant may have different effects on the course of different diseases. Herein, we review the current evidence about the mechanism of action of currently employed adjuvants and discuss the mechanisms by which such components may trigger autoimmunity. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source


Pellegrino P.,University of Milan | Carnovale C.,University of Milan | Perrone V.,University of Milan | Pozzi M.,Scientific Institute Irccs E Medea | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Objective:To evaluate epidemiological features of post vaccine acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) by considering data from different pharmacovigilance surveillance systems.Methods:The Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) database and the EudraVigilance post-authorisation module (EVPM) were searched to identify post vaccine ADEM cases. Epidemiological features including sex and related vaccines were analysed.Results:We retrieved 205 and 236 ADEM cases from the EVPM and VAERS databases, respectively, of which 404 were considered for epidemiological analysis following verification and causality assessment. Half of the patients had less than 18 years and with a slight male predominance. The time interval from vaccination to ADEM onset was 2-30 days in 61% of the cases. Vaccine against seasonal flu and human papilloma virus vaccine were those most frequently associated with ADEM, accounting for almost 30% of the total cases. Mean number of reports per year between 2005 and 2012 in VAERS database was 40±21.7, decreasing after 2010 mainly because of a reduction of reports associated with human papilloma virus and Diphtheria, Pertussis, Tetanus, Polio and Haemophilus Influentiae type B vaccines.Conclusions:This study has a high epidemiological power as it is based on information on adverse events having occurred in over one billion people. It suffers from lack of rigorous case verification due to the weakness intrinsic to the surveillance databases used. At variance with previous reports on a prevalence of ADEM in childhood we demonstrate that it may occur at any age when post vaccination. This study also shows that the diminishing trend in post vaccine ADEM reporting related to Diphtheria, Pertussis, Tetanus, Polio and Haemophilus Influentiae type B and human papilloma virus vaccine groups is most likely due to a decline in vaccine coverage indicative of a reduced attention to this adverse drug reaction. © 2013 Pellegrino et al. Source


Polley S.,University of Leicester | Louzada S.,Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute | Forni D.,Scientific Institute Irccs E Medea | Sironi M.,Scientific Institute Irccs E Medea | And 4 more authors.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2015

The dietary change resulting from the domestication of plant and animal species and development of agriculture at different locations across the world was one of the most significant changes in human evolution. An increase in dietary carbohydrates caused an increase in dental caries following the development of agriculture, mediated by the cariogenic oral bacterium Streptococcus mutans. Salivary agglutinin [SAG, encoded by the deleted in malignant brain tumors 1 (DMBT1) gene] is an innate immune receptor glycoprotein that binds a variety of bacteria and viruses, and mediates attachment of S. mutans to hydroxyapatite on the surface of the tooth. In this study we show that multiallelic copy number variation (CNV) within DMBT1 is extensive across all populations and is predicted to result in between 7-20 scavenger-receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) domains within each SAG molecule. Direct observation of de novo mutation in multigeneration families suggests these CNVs have a very high mutation rate for a protein-coding locus, with a mutation rate of up to 5% per gamete. Given that the SRCR domains bind S. mutans and hydroxyapatite in the tooth, we investigated the association of sequence diversity at the SAG-binding gene of S. mutans, and DMBT1 CNV. Furthermore, we show that DMBT1 CNV is also associated with a history of agriculture across global populations, suggesting that dietary change as a result of agriculture has shaped the pattern of CNV at DMBT1, and that the DMBT1-S. mutans interaction is a promising model of host-pathogen-culture coevolution in humans. © 2015, National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Source


Sironi M.,Scientific Institute Irccs E Medea | Cagliani R.,Scientific Institute Irccs E Medea | Forni D.,Scientific Institute Irccs E Medea | Clerici M.,University of Milan
Nature Reviews Genetics | Year: 2015

Infections are one of the major selective pressures acting on humans, and host-pathogen interactions contribute to shaping the genetic diversity of both organisms. Evolutionary genomic studies take advantage of experiments that natural selection has been performing over millennia. In particular, inter-species comparative genomic analyses can highlight the genetic determinants of infection susceptibility or severity. Recent examples show how evolution-guided approaches can provide new insights into host-pathogen interactions, ultimately clarifying the basis of host range and explaining the emergence of different diseases. We describe the latest developments in comparative immunology and evolutionary genetics, showing their relevance for understanding the molecular determinants of infection susceptibility in mammals. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. Source


Cereda M.,Scientific Institute Irccs E Medea | Cereda M.,University of Cambridge | Cereda M.,Italian National Cancer Institute | Pozzoli U.,Scientific Institute Irccs E Medea | And 9 more authors.
Genome Biology | Year: 2014

RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) regulate splicing according to position-dependent principles, which can be exploited for analysis of regulatory motifs. Here we present RNAmotifs, a method that evaluates the sequence around differentially regulated alternative exons to identify clusters of short and degenerate sequences, referred to as multivalent RNA motifs. We show that diverse RBPs share basic positional principles, but differ in their propensity to enhance or repress exon inclusion. We assess exons differentially spliced between brain and heart, identifying known and new regulatory motifs, and predict the expression pattern of RBPs that bind these motifs. © 2014 Cereda et al. Source

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