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Riezzo G.,Scientific Institute for Digestive Diseases | Orlando A.,Irccs Saverio Of Bellis National Institute Of Digestive Diseases Bari | D'Attoma B.,Irccs Saverio Of Bellis National Institute Of Digestive Diseases Bari | Guerra V.,Irccs Saverio Of Bellis National Institute Of Digestive Diseases Bari | And 3 more authors.
Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics

Background The role of probiotics in the management of constipation is uncertain. Aims To evaluate the effects of probiotic-enriched artichokes on treatment preference, symptom profile and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production in constipated subjects when compared with ordinary artichokes. Methods Twenty constipated patients (3M/17F; 38.8 ± 14.4 years) were studied using a double-blind method and a computer-generated randomisation list. Each patient consumed 180 g per day of ordinary artichokes or artichokes enriched with Lactobacillus paracasei IMPC 2.1 for 15 days (daily dose of 2 Ã- 10 10 CFU). Relief of symptoms was evaluated using a visual analogue scale. The stool consistency and symptom profile of patients were investigated using the Bristol stool form chart and the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale questionnaire (GSRS). SCFA production in faecal samples was evaluated using HPLC. Results Eighty per cent of patients preferred probiotic-enriched artichokes to ordinary ones (P = 0.011). Satisfactory relief of symptoms was significantly higher (P = 0.0014) during the probiotic-enriched artichoke period. Bristol chart cluster scores were significantly higher (3.3 ± 1.2, 2.9 ± 1.3 2.2 ± 1.2, baseline, ordinary artichokes and probiotic-enriched ones, respectively; P = 0.009) and GSRS constipation was significantly lower (13.9 ± 0.9, 10.2 ± 0.8, 8.3 ± 0.9; P = 0.032) in the probiotic group compared with the baseline. As for SCFA production, propionic acid was significantly higher (2.2 ± 1.4, 2.1 ± 1.53, 1.5 ± 1.2; P = 0.035) in the probiotic group compared with baseline. Conclusion This trial shows a positive effect on symptoms in constipated patients after intake of probiotic-enriched artichokes (clinical trial NCT01212146). © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

Bocale D.,University of Bari | Rotelli M.T.,University of Bari | Cavallini A.,Scientific Institute for Digestive Diseases | Altomare D.F.,University of Bari
Colorectal Disease

Aim The treatment of desmoid tumours (DTs) is controversial. Anti-oestrogen therapy has frequently been used, but clear information of its efficacy is lacking. In this systematic review we have undertaken a comprehensive analysis to assess the effectiveness of anti-oestrogen therapy in terms of ability to induce partial or complete regression of DTs. Method A systematic review of articles published in English between January 1983 and December 2009 was carried out according to the RECIST criteria. A literature search was performed on electronic databases including: United States National Library of Medicine (MEDLINE-PubMed), Excerpta Medica (EMBASE), Cochrane Library and Google search engine. Two-hundred articles dealing with DTs were identified but only fourty-one were were selected as appropriate for the study. The chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. Results Data on 168 DTs treated with anti-oestrogen agents, alone or in combination with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, were identified with an overall response rate of 51%. There was no difference in response according to the type of DTs or between different anti-oestrogen therapies. Combination with anti-inflammatory drugs did not improve the outcome. Toremifene was sometimes effective in cases resistant to tamoxifen. Response did not seem to be related to oestrogen receptor status. Conclusions Despite potential inaccuracies in the methodology, the results of the review indicate that anti-oestrogen therapy produces some effect in about one half of patients with DTs. Its indication compared with other treatments is discussed. © 2011 The Authors. Colorectal Disease © 2011 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland. Source

Porcelli P.,Scientific Institute for Digestive Diseases

Background: Previous studies have shown that alexithymia is associated with gene polymorphisms that regulate the availability of serotonin (5-HT) in the brain. Since the 5-HT network is involved in interferon (IFN)-induced depression, this paper aimed to investigate the role of alexithymia and the functional gene variants of the 5-HT1A receptor (HTR1A) and the 5-HT transporter (5-HTTLPR) in induction of depression during antiviral treatment. Methods: The depressive symptoms of 130 consecutive patients with chronic hepatitis C and no current psychopathology were measured during treatment with IFN and ribavirin (6-12 months) and at a 6-month follow-up. At baseline, alexithymia and 2 genotypes (5-HTTLPR and HTR1A) were also assessed. Results: Patients with homozygosity for HTR1A-G and 5-HTTLPR long alleles had significantly higher levels of alexithymia. After controlling for sociodemographic and disease-related factors, alexithymia and HTR1A-G polymorphism, both separately (20-22%) and jointly (14-16%), significantly and independently predicted the development of IFN-induced depression. Conclusions: Subjects carrying HTR1A-G and 5-HTTLRP double long alleles are more vulnerable to alexithymia. Also patients with a higher level of alexithymia and the HTR1A-G gene variant are more vulnerable to experiencing IFN-induced depressive symptoms. The clinical implications of targeting alexithymia and HTR1A receptors as a possible treatment option for mood disorders should be investigated in further studies. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel Copyright © 2015, S. Karger AG. All rights reserved. Source

Linsalata M.,Scientific Institute for Digestive Diseases | Cavallini A.,Scientific Institute for Digestive Diseases | Messa C.,Scientific Institute for Digestive Diseases | Orlando A.,Scientific Institute for Digestive Diseases | And 2 more authors.
Current Pharmaceutical Design

Chemoprevention by dietary constituents has recently emerged as a novel approach to control gastric cancer incidence. Over the past years, functional foods and food supplements, especially probiotics, have received much attention as potential dietary cancer prevention agents. The precise mechanisms by which these lactic cultures exert their antitumorigenic activities are not fully elucidated, but there is some evidence of their influence on cell proliferation and growth. Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT) are the key enzymes involved in polyamine biosynthesis and catabolism, respectively. These polycationic compounds are significantly associated with cancer risk and represent a specific markers for neoplastic proliferation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of increasing concentrations of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG (ATCC 53103) (L. GG) homogenate on polyamine biosynthesis and polyamine degradation as well as on resulting polyamine levels in HGC-27 human gastric cancer cells. The influence of this probiotic on cell proliferation was also evaluated. Administration of probiotic homogenate significantly reduced both ODC mRNA and activity as well as polyamine content and neoplastic proliferation. Besides, an increase in both SSAT mRNA and activity occurred after LGG administration in HGC-27. These data suggest that a nutritional component such as the probiotic L. GG could be proposed in an alternative approach to prevention of gastric cancer. This strategy could overcome the limitations due to a prolonged use of drugs and/or the occurrence of their adverse effects, and it could reasonably also start at a young age. © 2010 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. Source

Linsalata M.,Scientific Institute for Digestive Diseases | Orlando A.,Scientific Institute for Digestive Diseases | Messa C.,Scientific Institute for Digestive Diseases | Refolo M.G.,Scientific Institute for Digestive Diseases | Russo F.,Scientific Institute for Digestive Diseases
Anticancer Research

Background/Aim: Polyamines and ornithine decarboxylase are involved in cell growth and differentiation. The polyphenol quercetin may exert anti-tumour properties by influencing proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of increasing concentrations of quercetin (from 0.1 to 100 μM) on polyamine biosynthesis, cell proliferation, and apoptosis in the DLD-1 cells. Materials and Methods: Polyamine levels and ornithine decarboxylase activity were evaluated by HPLC and radiometric technique, respectively. The proliferative response was estimated by 3-(4,5 dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) test and [ 3H]-thymidine incorporation in cell DNA. Apoptosis was investigated by DNA fragmentation. Results: At concentrations ≥50 μM, quercetin significantly reduced ornithine decarboxylase activity, putrescine and spermidine levels compared to controls and cells treated with 0.1 μM concentration. Quercetin concentrations ≥70 μM caused a significant reduction in the conversion of MTT tetrazolium salt and [3H]- thymidine incorporation. The same concentrations were needed to induce the apoptosis. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that quercetin can affect growth of DLD-1 cells by both decreasing polyamine biosynthesis and inducing apoptosis. Due to the extensive dietary consumption of polyphenols, such as quercetin, the biological activity of these compounds deserves further investigation. Source

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