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Preissl S.,European Screening Port GmbH | Preissl S.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg | Bick I.,IonGate Biosciences GmbH | Obrdlik P.,IonGate Biosciences GmbH | And 4 more authors.
Assay and Drug Development Technologies

Membrane-bound transporter proteins are involved in cell signal transduction and metabolism as well as influencing key pharmacological properties such as drug bioavailability. The functional activity of transporters that belong to the group of electrically active membrane proteins can be directly monitored using the solid-supported membrane-based SURFE 2R™ technology (SURFace Electrogenic Event Reader; Scientific Devices Heidelberg GmbH, Heidelberg, Germany). The method makes use of membrane fragments or vesicles containing transport proteins adsorbed onto solid-supported membrane-covered electrodes and allows the direct measurement of their activity. This technology has been used to develop a robust screening compatible assay for Complex I/Complex III, key components of the respiratory chain in 96-well microtiter plates. The assay was screened against 1,000 compounds from the ComGenex Lead-like small molecule library to ascertain whether mitochondrial liabilities might be an underlying, although undesirable feature of typical commercial screening libraries. Some 105 hits (compounds exhibiting >50% inhibition of Complex I/Complex III activity at 10 μM) were identified and their activities were subsequently confirmed in duplicate, yielding a confirmation rate of 68%. Analysis of the confirmed hits also provided evidence of structure-activity relationships and two compounds from one structural class were further evaluated in dose-response experiments. This study provides evidence that profiling of compounds for potential mitochondrial liabilities, even at an early stage of drug discovery, may be a necessary additional quality filter that should be considered during the compound screening and profiling cascade. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2011. Source

Stock U.,Sanofi S.A. | Matter H.,Sanofi S.A. | Diekert K.,Scientific Devices Heidelberg GmbH | Dorner W.,Scientific Devices Heidelberg GmbH | And 2 more authors.
Assay and Drug Development Technologies

The electron transport chain (ETC) couples electron transfer between donors and acceptors with proton transport across the inner mitochondrial membrane. The resulting electrochemical proton gradient is used to generate chemical energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Proton transfer is based on the activity of complex I-V proteins in the ETC. The overall electrical activity of these proteins can be measured by proton transfer using Solid Supported Membrane technology. We tested the activity of complexes I, III, and V in a combined assay, called oxidative phosphorylation assay (oxphos assay), by activating each complex with the corresponding substrate. The oxphos assay was used to test in-house substances from different projects and several drugs currently available on the market that have reported effects on mitochondrial functions. The resulting data were compared to the influence of the respective compounds on mitochondria as determined by oxygen consumption and to data generated with an ATP depletion assay. The comparison shows that the oxidative phosphorylation assay provides both a rapid approach for detecting interaction of compounds with respiratory chain proteins and information on their mode of interaction. Therefore, the oxphos assay is a useful tool to support structure activity relationship studies by allowing early identification of mitotoxicity and for analyzing the outcome of phenotypic screens that are susceptible to the generation of mitotoxicity-related artifacts. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Source

Watzke N.,IonGate Biosciences GmbH | Watzke N.,Scientific Devices Heidelberg GmbH | Diekert K.,IonGate Biosciences GmbH | Diekert K.,Scientific Devices Heidelberg GmbH | And 2 more authors.

Transport of protons and solutes across mitochondrial membranes is essential for many physiological processes. However, neither the proton-pumping respiratory chain complexes nor the mitochondrial secondary active solute transport proteins have been characterized electrophysiologically in their native environment. In this study, solid-supported membrane (SSM) technology was applied for electrical measurements of respiratory chain complexes CI, CII, CIII, and CIV, the FOF1-ATPase/synthase (CV), and the adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) in inner membranes of pig heart mitochondria. Specific substrates and inhibitors were used to validate the different assays, and the corresponding0.5 and IC50 values were in good agreement with previously published results obtained with other methods. In combined measurements of CI-CV, it was possible to detect oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), to measure differential effects of the uncoupler carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) on the respective protein activities, and to determine the corresponding IC50 values. Moreover, the measurements revealed a tight functional coupling of CI and CIII. Coenzyme Q (CoQ) analogues decylubiquinone (DBQ) and idebenone (Ide) stimulated the CII- and CIII-specific electrical currents but had inverse effects on CI-CIII activity. In summary, the results describe the electrophysiological and pharmacological properties ofrespiratory chain complexes, OXPHOS, and ANT in native mitochondrial membranes and demonstrate that SSM-based electrophysiology provides new insights into a complex molecular mechanism of the respiratory chain and the associated transport proteins. Besides, the SSM-based approach is suited for highly sensitive and specific testing of diverse respiratory chain modulators such as inhibitors, CoQ analogues, and uncoupling agents. © 2010 American Chemical Society. Source

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