Yokohama-shi, Japan
Yokohama-shi, Japan

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PubMed | Marine Products Kimuraya Co., Koyo Chemical Co., Tottori Institute of Industrial Technology, Tottori University and Scientific Crime Laboratory
Type: | Journal: Carbohydrate research | Year: 2014

Fucoidan and chondroitin sulfate, which are well known sulfated polysaccharides, were depolymerized under hydrothermal conditions (120-180C, 5-60min) as a method for the preparation of sulfated polysaccharides with controlled molecular weights. Fucoidan was easily depolymerized, and the change of the molecular weight values depended on the reaction temperature and time. The degree of sulfation and IR spectra of the depolymerized fucoidan did not change compared with those of untreated fucoidan at reaction temperatures below 140C. However, fucoidan was partially degraded during depolymerization above 160C. Nearly the same depolymerization was observed for chondroitin sulfate. These results indicate that hydrothermal treatment is applicable for the depolymerization of sulfated polysaccharides, and that low molecular weight products without desulfation and deformation of the initial glycan structures can be obtained under mild hydrothermal conditions.


Azuma K.,Tottori University | Ishihara T.,Tottori University | Nakamoto H.,Tottori University | Amaha T.,Tottori University | And 10 more authors.
Marine Drugs | Year: 2012

We evaluated the anti-tumor activities of the oral administration of fucoidan extracted from Cladosiphon okamuranus using a tumor (colon 26)-bearing mouse model. The materials used included low-molecular-weight fucoidan (LMWF: 6.5-40 kDa), intermediate-molecular-weight fucoidan (IMWF: 110-138 kDa) and high-molecular-weight fucoidan (HMWF: 300-330 kDa). The IMWF group showed significantly suppressed tumor growth. The LMWF and HMWF groups showed significantly increased survival times compared with that observed in the control group (mice fed a fucoidan-free diet). The median survival times in the control, LMWF, IMWF and HMWF groups were 23, 46, 40 and 43 days, respectively. It was also found that oral administration of fucoidan increased the population of natural killer cells in the spleen. Furthermore, from the results of the experiment using Myd-88 knockout mice, it was found that these effects are related to gut immunity. These results suggest that fucoidan is a candidate anti-tumor functional food. © 2012 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


Azuma K.,Tottori University | Nishihara M.,Tottori University | Shimizu H.,Tottori University | Itoh Y.,Tottori University | And 12 more authors.
Biomaterials | Year: 2015

Novel biological adhesives made from chitin derivatives were prepared and evaluated for their adhesive properties and biocompatibility. Chitin derivatives with acrylic groups, such as 2-hydroxy-3-methacryloyloxypropylated carboxymethyl chitin (HMA-CM-chitin), were synthesized and cured by the addition of an aqueous hydrogen peroxide solution as a radical initiator. The adhesive strength of HMA-CM-chitin increased when it was blended with chitin nanofibers (CNFs) or surface-deacetylated chitin nanofibers (S-DACNFs). HMA-CM-chitin/CNFs or HMA-CM-chitin/S-DACNFs have almost equal adhesive strength compared to that of a commercial cyanoacrylate adhesive. Moreover, quick adhesion and induction of inflammatory cells migration were observed in HMA-CM-chitin/CNF and HMA-CM-chitin/S-DACNF. These findings indicate that the composites prepared in this study are promising materials as new biological adhesives. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Tamura T.,Scientific Crime Laboratory | Osawa M.,Tokai University | Kimura R.,University of Ryukyus | Inaoka Y.,Tokai University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine | Year: 2013

To infer relatedness from genetic data based on short tandem repeats, the exact method, in which shared allele frequencies are applied to relevant equations, has been conventionally used. An alternative approach is the IBS method that is based on the number of shared alleles between individuals. In the present study, the performance of the IBS method in pairwise kinship analysis was compared with the exact method using simulated data of 10,000 genotype pairs for 15 loci in the ABI Identifiler system. The likelihood ratio in allele-sharing of zero, one and two was calculated from joint probabilities based on allele frequencies of the Japanese population. Whereas the IBS method generally produced lower values of combined indices, smaller deviations of the distributions were evident. The threshold for identification of full siblings relative to non-relatives was comparable with that of the exact method, indicating that both inference powers were almost identical. The likelihood ratio in the IBS method depends on the heterozygosity at a locus, and heterozygosities of the 15 loci were consistent across various population groups, particularly in East Asians. The convenience of fixed LR values in the IBS method is beneficial for cases with uncertain allele frequencies and rare alleles. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.


Sato I.,Scientific Crime Laboratory | Sato I.,Forensic Biology Unit | Nakaki S.,Forensic Science Laboratory | Murata K.,Nihon University | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Legal Medicine | Year: 2010

As part of an investigation of a case of pet animal abuse, we attempted to identify small mammalian species by morphological analysis and single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing of the cytochrome b gene using guard hairs as an analytical material. Guard hair samples from several species were measured for length, width, medulla formation, and cuticle scale pattern under a light microscope or scanning electron microscope. These samples were also analyzed for SNPs in the cytochrome b gene using a multiplex single-base primer extension reaction. Morphological analysis of cuticle scale pattern and medulla formation was able to discriminate ferret hairs from other hair samples that included rabbit, gerbil, degu, and Djungarian hamster. However, this also revealed a similarity of the guard hairs of the ferret (Mustela putorius furo) and Japanese weasel (Mustela itatsi). Although at three sites, the nucleotide color signals of SNPs in the cytochrome b gene could be used to discriminate completely among human, dog, and gerbil, the signals for cat, ferret, and Japanese weasel occurred at the same nucleotide sites. Unfortunately, no signals were obtained from degu, Djungarian hamster, and rabbit hairs. Although the discriminated hair samples were 100% identical to those of the ferret, there was only a 5% difference from Japanese weasel in the partial sequence of the cytochrome b gene. Construction of a database of mammalian hairs would be useful not only in forensic science, but also for investigating smuggling of endangered species in contravention of the Washington Convention. © Springer-Verlag 2009.


Inaoka Y.,Tokai University | Tajima A.,Tokushima University | Tamura T.,Scientific Crime Laboratory | Satoh F.,Tokai University | Osawa M.,Tokai University
Forensic Science International: Genetics Supplement Series | Year: 2011

Pairwise kinship analysis is the basic approach in forensic examinations. The conventional assessment is achieved after statistical calculation of genetic data from a set of STR markers. However, the combined index of likelihood ratio does not separate siblings from unrelated pairs. In the present study, we ensured the effectiveness of SNP microarray assay to the kinship analysis. Reproducible large-scale genotypes data were obtained by the assay. In the setting of more than 0.05 of minor allele frequency and r2=0.2 in linkage disequilibrium, the SNP data was analyzed using a IBD-based coefficient, π, in addition to IBD values. The minimum numbers of SNP subset for separation of full siblings and second degree pairs from unrelated pairs should be 1000 and 5000, respectively. SNP microarray assay will be useful for the analytic approach for full siblings and the second degree pairs. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Tamura .,Tokai University | Tamura .,Scientific Crime Laboratory | Osawa M.,Tokai University | Ochiai E.,Tokai University | And 2 more authors.
Legal Medicine | Year: 2015

The AmpFLSTR Identifiler Kit, comprising 15 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci, is commonly employed in forensic practice for calculating match probabilities and parentage testing. The conventional system exhibits insufficient estimation for kinship analysis such as sibship testing because of shortness of examined loci. This study evaluated the power of the PowerPlex Fusion System, GlobalFiler Kit, and PowerPlex 21 System, which comprise more than 20 autosomal STR loci, to estimate pairwise blood relatedness (i.e., parent-child, full siblings, second-degree relatives, and first cousins). The genotypes of all 24 STR loci in 10,000 putative pedigrees were constructed by simulation. The likelihood ratio for each locus was calculated from joint probabilities for relatives and non-relatives. The combined likelihood ratio was calculated according to the product rule. The addition of STR loci improved separation between relatives and non-relatives. However, these systems were less effectively extended to the inference for first cousins. In conclusion, these advanced systems will be useful in forensic personal identification, especially in the evaluation of full siblings and second-degree relatives. Moreover, the additional loci may give rise to two major issues of more frequent mutational events and several pairs of linked loci on the same chromosome. © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


PubMed | Tokai University and Scientific Crime Laboratory
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International journal of legal medicine | Year: 2016

The advanced multiplex STR system, PowerPlex Fusion, includes four linked locus pairs. The conventional Identifiler system has one pair of linked loci. Therefore, sibling tests conducted using the advanced system might be more affected by linkage than those conducted using the conventional system. This study simulated single and combined effects of the four linked locus pairs on pairwise sibling tests. Simulated genotypes of 100,000 pairs of full siblings and nonrelatives were constructed according to allele frequencies of the Japanese population. The single linkage effect was evaluated for simulated genotype data by calculating both the likelihood ratio accounting for the linkage between two loci and the likelihood ratio ignoring the linkage. The combined effect was obtained by multiplication of the respective single effects. Furthermore, we investigated the possibility that ignoring the linkage affects subject classification by introducing a scale of the likelihood ratio into sibling tests. The single effect in the Identifiler analysis was 0.645-1.746 times if the linkage was ignored. Overestimations and underestimations were predictable from the identical-by-state status at two linked loci. The combined effect in the PowerPlex Fusion analysis was 0.217-7.390 times. Ignoring the linkage rarely caused a false conclusive or inconclusive result, even from PowerPlex Fusion analysis. Application of the advanced system improved sibling tests considerably. The additional examined loci were more beneficial than the adverse effect of the linkage derived from the four linked locus pairs.


PubMed | Scientific Crime Laboratory
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of forensic and legal medicine | Year: 2013

To infer relatedness from genetic data based on short tandem repeats, the exact method, in which shared allele frequencies are applied to relevant equations, has been conventionally used. An alternative approach is the IBS method that is based on the number of shared alleles between individuals. In the present study, the performance of the IBS method in pairwise kinship analysis was compared with the exact method using simulated data of 10,000 genotype pairs for 15 loci in the ABI Identifiler system. The likelihood ratio in allele-sharing of zero, one and two was calculated from joint probabilities based on allele frequencies of the Japanese population. Whereas the IBS method generally produced lower values of combined indices, smaller deviations of the distributions were evident. The threshold for identification of full siblings relative to non-relatives was comparable with that of the exact method, indicating that both inference powers were almost identical. The likelihood ratio in the IBS method depends on the heterozygosity at a locus, and heterozygosities of the 15 loci were consistent across various population groups, particularly in East Asians. The convenience of fixed LR values in the IBS method is beneficial for cases with uncertain allele frequencies and rare alleles.


PubMed | Tokai University and Scientific Crime Laboratory
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Legal medicine (Tokyo, Japan) | Year: 2015

The AmpFLSTR Identifiler Kit, comprising 15 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci, is commonly employed in forensic practice for calculating match probabilities and parentage testing. The conventional system exhibits insufficient estimation for kinship analysis such as sibship testing because of shortness of examined loci. This study evaluated the power of the PowerPlex Fusion System, GlobalFiler Kit, and PowerPlex 21 System, which comprise more than 20 autosomal STR loci, to estimate pairwise blood relatedness (i.e., parent-child, full siblings, second-degree relatives, and first cousins). The genotypes of all 24 STR loci in 10,000 putative pedigrees were constructed by simulation. The likelihood ratio for each locus was calculated from joint probabilities for relatives and non-relatives. The combined likelihood ratio was calculated according to the product rule. The addition of STR loci improved separation between relatives and non-relatives. However, these systems were less effectively extended to the inference for first cousins. In conclusion, these advanced systems will be useful in forensic personal identification, especially in the evaluation of full siblings and second-degree relatives. Moreover, the additional loci may give rise to two major issues of more frequent mutational events and several pairs of linked loci on the same chromosome.

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