Biffinger J.C.,U.S. Navy |
Fitzgerald L.A.,U.S. Navy |
Howard E.C.,U.S. Navy |
Howard E.C.,Scientific Consulting Group Inc. |
And 4 more authors.
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2013
Biogenic gas has a wide range of energy applications from being used as a source for crude bio-oil components to direct ignition for heating. The current study describes the use of biogenic gases from Clostridium acetobutylicum for a new application - renewable ballast regeneration for autonomous underwater devices. Uninterrupted (continuous) and blocked flow (pressurization) experiments were performed to determine the overall biogas composition and total volume generated from a semirigid gelatinous matrix. For stopped flow experiments, C. acetobutylicum generated a maximum pressure of 55 psi over 48 h composed of 60 % hydrogen gas when inoculated in a 5 % agar (w/v) support with 5 % glucose (w/v) in the matrix. Typical pressures over 24 h at 318 K ranged from 10 to 33 psi. These blocked flow experiments show for the first time the use of microbial gas production as a way to repressurize gas cylinders. Continuous flow experiments successfully demonstrated how to deliver biogas to an open ballast control configuration for deployable underwater platforms. This study is a starting point for engineering and microbiology investigations of biogas which will advance the integration of biology within autonomous systems. © 2012 Springer-Verlag (outside the USA).
Burgio M.R.,U.S. National Institutes of Health |
Burgio M.R.,Scientific Consulting Group Inc. |
Ioannidis J.P.A.,Stanford University |
Kaminski B.M.,U.S. National Institutes of Health |
And 5 more authors.
Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention | Year: 2013
During the last two decades, epidemiology has undergone a rapid evolution toward collaborative research. The proliferation of multi-institutional, interdisciplinary consortia has acquired particular prominence in cancer research. Herein, we describe the characteristics of a network of 49 established cancer epidemiology consortia (CEC) currently supported by the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP) at the National Cancer Institute (NCI). This collection represents the largest disease-based research network for collaborative cancer research established in population sciences. We describe the funding trends, geographic distribution, and areas of research focus. The CEC have been partially supported by 201 grants and yielded 3,876 publications between 1995 and 2011. We describe this output in terms of interdisciplinary collaboration and translational evolution. We discuss challenges and future opportunities in the establishment and conduct of large-scale team science within the framework of CEC, review future prospects for this approach to largescale, interdisciplinary cancer research, and describe a model for the evolution of an integrated Network of Cancer Consortia optimally suited to address and support 21st-century epidemiology. © 2013 AACR.
Plag H.P.,University of Nevada, Reno |
Ondich G.,Scientific Consulting Group Inc. |
Kaufman J.,Scientific Consulting Group Inc. |
Foley G.,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency |
Pignatelli F.,European Commission - Joint Research Center Ispra
34th International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment - The GEOSS Era: Towards Operational Environmental Monitoring | Year: 2011
To achieve its goal to be user-driven, building the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) must be guided by a set of explicitly known user needs. At the core of GEOSS is the GEOSS Common Infrastructure (GCI), which includes registries that enable users of Earth observations to search, discover, access, and use the data and services available through GEOSS. Three of these registries focus primarily on the contributors to GEOSS. The fourth registry, the User Requirements Registry (URR) is a place for the collection, sharing, and analysis of user needs and Earth observation requirements, and it provides means for an efficient dialog between users and providers. The URR is a comprehensive database describing User Types, Applications, Requirements, Research Needs, and Technology Needs, and includes a Lexicon and literature References. The novel concept of the URR is in the information captured in the Links form, where links between any pairs of entries in the other forms can be published, including descriptions of the societal benefits of the link and the implementation status. As the URR evolves, the powerful nature of this concept is slowly becoming more obvious as it allows to answer many questions, such as 'who is using my data?'; 'On what applications do I directly or indirectly depend?' or 'What requirements need to be met to make these application work?' A fully populated GCI will allow the identification of gaps between user needs and system performance as a basis for prioritizing of user needs.
Minasian L.M.,U.S. National Cancer Institute |
Carpenter W.R.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill |
Weiner B.J.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill |
Anderson D.E.,Scientific Consulting Group Inc. |
And 6 more authors.
Cancer | Year: 2010
The recent rapid acceleration of basic science is reshaping both our clinical research system and our healthcare delivery system. The pace and growing volume of medical discoveries are yielding exciting new opportunities, yet we continue to face old challenges to maintain research progress and effectively translate research into practice. The National Institutes of Health and individual government programs increasingly are emphasizing research agendas that involve evidence development, comparative-effectiveness research among heterogeneous populations, translational research, and accelerating the translation of research into evidence-based practice as well as building successful research networks to support these efforts. For more than 25 years, the National Cancer Institute Community Clinical Oncology Program has successfully extended research into the community and facilitated the translation of research into evidence-based practice. By describing its keys to success, this article provides practical guidance to cancer-focused, provider-based research networks as well as those in other disciplines. © 2010 American Cancer Society.
Lindor N.M.,Mayo Medical School |
Rabe K.G.,Mayo Medical School |
Petersen G.M.,Mayo Medical School |
Chen H.,Mayo Medical School |
And 16 more authors.
International Journal of Cancer | Year: 2010
Genomic imprinting refers to a parent-of-origin specific effect on gene expression. At least 1% of genes in the human genome are modulated in this manner. We sought evidence for genomic imprinting in colorectal cancer by studying the ages at diagnosis in the offspring of 2,061 parent-child pairs in which both parent and child were affected by nonsyndromic colorectal cancer. Families were ascertained through the colon Cancer Family Registry [http://epi.grants.cancer.gov/CFR/ 〈http://epi.grants.cancer.gov/CFR/ 〉] from both population-based and clinic-based sources. We found that the affected offspring of affected fathers were on average younger than offspring of affected mothers (55.8 vs. 53.7 years; p = 0.0003), but when divided into sons and daughters, this difference was driven entirely by younger age at diagnosis in daughters of affected fathers compared to sons (52.3 years vs. 55.1 years; p = 0.0004). A younger age at diagnosis in affected daughters of affected fathers was also observable in various subsets including families that met Amsterdam II Criteria, families that did not meet Amsterdam Criteria, and in families with documented normal DNA mismatch repair in tumors. Imprinting effects are not expected to be affected by the sex of the offspring. Possible explanations for these unexpected findings include: (i) an imprinted gene on the pseudoautosomal regions of the X chromosome; (ii) an imprinted autosomal gene that affects a sex-specific pathway; or (iii) an X-linked gene unmasked because of colonic tissue-specific preferential inactivation of the maternal X chromosome. © 2009 UICC.
Gibb S.,Scientific Consulting Group Inc.
EM: Air and Waste Management Association's Magazine for Environmental Managers | Year: 2011
The challenges associated with communicating risk to different audiences, even for those with experience and comfort in public speaking, are discussed. Risk communication is both a science and an art, and allows drawing on background, experiences, and knowledge to carry through the process. There are some key issues which are present in the risk communication. They include credibility, cultural competence, preparation, sharing control, and respect. Rehearsing risk communication talks with a nontechnical person can be helpful. One must avoid a bunker mentality and be especially responsive to concerns from community leaders, lawmakers, and those who represent potentially vulnerable groups, such as the elderly and children. Identifying target audiences and speaking their language using a neutral, objective tone to convey risk information will enhance effectiveness.