Nicholson D.J.,SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry |
Leavitt A.T.,Andritz Group |
Francis R.C.,Scientific Consultant
Cellulose Chemistry and Technology | Year: 2014
A three-stage Klason, or 72 wt% sulfuric acid, method is described for hardwoods. As compared to the traditional two-stage method, the primary hydrolysis (PH) stage was modified to improve mixing of the wood meal into the 72% H2SO4. The PH stage was followed by two 1 h secondary hydrolysis (SH) stages. The 72% H2SO4 slurry was first diluted to 40 wt% H2SO4 and heated at 80 °C then diluted to 3 wt% H2SO4 and refluxed. When equivalent PH stages were used, convincing evidence was obtained showing that the hydrolytic intensity in the cleavage of lignin-carbohydrate complexes (LCC) was much higher for the modified SH stages, as compared to the traditional refluxing of a 3% H2SO4 slurry for 4 h. The accuracy in lignin content determination should be equal or superior for the three-stage method, which takes approximately 2 h less time. Results are presented for 4 hardwoods from 3 different genera.
Cantu A.A.,Scientific Consultant
Forensic Science International | Year: 2015
The evaporation of a solution consisting of a non-volatile solute dissolved in a volatile solvent has been previously treated using a simple model called the beaker model. This model considers the solution to be in a non-porous container that has vertical walls like a glass beaker and assumes the solution is an ideal solution so that Raoult's law is obeyed. A particular novel finding was that under a certain condition, the evaporation or aging curve of the solution has a point of maximum acceleration. Prior to this point, the solution is in its fast drying mode and after this point, it is in its slow drying mode. This phenomenon is observed in the drying of many writing inks. In this work this model is modified to consider the evaporation of (a) a non-ideal solution, (b) a solution that become saturated, (c) a solution on a glass slide, and (d) a solution on a porous substrate. In each of these cases, the existence and location of the point of maximum acceleration of the drying process are examined. These modifications lead to a description of the dying process of a solution that is remarkably similar to that of writing inks but obtained via an entirely different physical model. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Pagliaroli A.,CNR Institute of Environmental Geology and Geoengineering |
Quadrio B.,CNR Institute of Environmental Geology and Geoengineering |
Lanzo G.,University of Rome La Sapienza |
Sano T.,Scientific consultant
Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering | Year: 2014
Historical sources report that Rome has experienced considerable earthquake ground motion in the past, even though it is quite far from high-magnitude seismogenic sources. Damage distribution seems to be predominantly controlled by ground shaking amplification related to local soil conditions. In this context a multidisciplinary research project has been conducted to determine the seismic microzonation of the Central Archaeological Area of Rome, which includes the Palatine Hill, Roman Forum, and Coliseum. In particular, the present paper details the results of one and bi-dimensional site response analyses carried out within this project, focusing discussion on representative cross-sections. The peculiarity of this work stems from the fact that it represents the first systematic study on the seismic site response of Rome's historical centre based on a robust subsoil model which integrates a large amount of available and original geological, geophysical and geotechnical data. Investigation of the physical phenomena responsible for site effects shows that ground motion distribution is mainly controlled by 1D resonance phenomena and 2D effects associated with soft alluvial valleys bordering the Palatine Hill, a deep paleo-valley and, to a lesser extent, topography and the morphology of anthropogenic deposits. The analyses show maximum amplification factors, defined in terms of Housner Intensity, as high as 1.4-1.8 over the period range of 0.1-1.0 s. Such values can be significantly relevant for the monumental and archaeological heritage of this area, as many are highly vulnerable due to their great age. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.
Gippoliti S.,Scientific consultant
Zoologische Garten | Year: 2014
This paper reviews the history of African wild asses in the Giardino Zoologico of Rome, highlighting their relevance to taxonomy of Equus africanus (von Heuglin & Fitzinger, 1866). Specifically, it is demonstrated that the so-called Munich/Catskill stock of African wild ass originated from three animals imported in Rome from Eritrean Danakil in August 1932. Available evidence suggests that contrary to some recent statements, these 'wild' asses were not related to the Nubian wild ass and are better considered as the result of some intergradations between Somali wild asses and local Danakil donkeys. © 2014 .
Weyermann C.,University of Lausanne |
Almog J.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem |
Bugler J.,Institute of Forensic science |
Cantu A.A.,Scientific Consultant
Forensic Science International | Year: 2011
Several ink dating methods based on solvents analysis using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) were proposed in the last decades. These methods follow the drying of solvents from ballpoint pen inks on paper and seem very promising. However, several questions arose over the last few years among questioned documents examiners regarding the transparency and reproducibility of the proposed techniques. These questions should be carefully studied for accurate and ethical application of this methodology in casework. Inspired by a real investigation involving ink dating, the present paper discusses this particular issue throughout four main topics: aging processes, dating methods, validation procedures and data interpretation. This work presents a wide picture of the ink dating field, warns about potential shortcomings and also proposes some solutions to avoid reporting errors in court. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Zeppenfeld K.,Scientific Consultant
Journal of Water Supply: Research and Technology - AQUA | Year: 2010
This paper describes the influence of different Ca2+ and HCO3 - concentrations on the precipitation of calcite in aqueous solutions. Mixtures of CaCl2 and NaHCO3 solutions with different concentrations were stirred, covering a wide range of supersaturation and precipitation of calcite. The resulting reduction of the Ca2+ concentration was recorded as a function of time by measuring the electric conductivity and the pH value. The nucleation rate increased with increasing supersaturation and can be described with the classical theory of nucleation. For different solutions with similar values of supersaturation, the hydrogen carbonate/calcium ratio had no significant influence on the rate of nucleation. At a given calcium concentration the precipitation rate increased with increasing supersaturation. This effect was more pronounced at higher supersaturations. Measurements at similar values of supersaturation showed that the calcite precipitation rate increased with increasing hydrogen carbonate/calcium ratio. These results can be explained by applying a surface complexation model. The crystal surface concentrations of the two species > CaCO3 - and > CO3 - and the adsorption of CaCO3 0 ion pairs are responsible for catalysing calcite precipitation. © IWA Publishing 2010.
Cantu A.A.,Scientific Consultant
Forensic Science International | Year: 2012
When writing ink is placed on a substrate, a drying process begins. This process is dependent on the composition of the ink and of the substrate. Lociciro et al.  provide an equation that describes the drying process based on models developed by earlier investigators. The work given here develops an equation for the drying process that is based on a different and rather simple model. This model considers the evaporation of a solution in an opened vertical container (e.g., a beaker) and consists of a volatile, non-hygroscopic solvent with a non-volatile solute dissolved in it. Three assumptions are made: (a) the rate of evaporation is proportional to the vapor pressure of the solution and to the solution's exposed surface area, (b) this solution vapor pressure is proportional to the solvent vapor pressure with the proportionality constant being the solvent mole fraction (Raoult's law), and (c) a small fraction of the solvent remains trapped in the solute after evaporation ceases. What results is a differential equation, which, when solved, gives the solvent weight W(t) as an implicit function. What emerges naturally from this treatment is the fact that the function W(t) can have a point of maximum acceleration. Prior to this point the drying process is fast and after this point, the drying process is slow. An approximation to W(t) is taken to be the sum of two exponential functions, one describing the fast drying region and the second describing the subsequent slow drying region. Upon including an additive constant, this approximation turns out to be similar to, but not the same as that provided by Lociciro et al. . However, their equivalence is shown and then tested using the two inks examined by Lociciro et al.  (the drying of a Bic and a Staedtler blue ballpoint ink).The examples of (solvent. +. solute) systems (" inks" ) given here consist of the solvent (2-phenoxyethanol) and a solute such as a dye (crystal violet) or a polymer resin such as synthetic resin SK or polyvinyl butyral. In the case of polymers, the Raoult's law assumption is replaced with one developed by the Flory-Huggins theory of solutions. Saturation and film formation, both of which slow the evaporation rate, are also discussed. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Righetti P.G.,Miles Gloriosus Academy |
Boschetti E.,Scientific Consultant
Amino Acids | Year: 2013
The enrichment of targeted low-abundance proteins is possible by affinity adsorption using selected sorbents. Different categories of very dilute proteins are present in most of biological extracts so that specific affinity methods are unable to address their collective enrichment. Only recently an interesting approach has been proposed associating the affinity of multiple ligands used as a library mode under overloading much beyond the saturation of the affinity mixed bed. The principle and the limits of this technology are reported along with their current and potential applications in various domains. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Wien.
Newman S.,Scientific Consultant
Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery | Year: 2014
Introduction: The inhaled route has many advantages, but requires the patient to use, and to master the use of, an inhaler device. Poor inhaler technique and non-adherence to therapy lead to a highly variable lung dose in clinical practice, with subsequent loss of clinical efficacy and wastage of economic resources. Areas covered: This paper discusses problems of poor inhaler technique, non-adherence to inhaler therapy, other issues relating to the precision of dose delivery, the consequences of these problems and how they can be addressed. Expert opinion: The precision of dosing by the pulmonary route can be improved by appropriate choice of inhaler device and by education. It is vital to educate patients about their disease, about the importance of taking prescribed medications and about correct inhaler use. One-on-one sessions with healthcare professionals probably represent the most effective educational method. For some drugs and patient groups, inhalers containing small microprocessors may also be used to control inhalation technique, and hence, to obtain a more reproducible lung dose. As the range of drugs delivered by inhalation increases, the need for correct inhaler technique, adherence to therapy and precise dosing becomes more and more important. © 2014 Informa UK, Ltd.
News Article | February 22, 2017
ROHNERT PARK, Calif.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Two leaders in California education - United Patients Group, a leading medical cannabis education organization and Sonoma State University are teaming up to offer the first medical cannabis course from a major public university in the country. The upcoming course, Medical Cannabis: A Clinical Focus, marks a watershed moment in medical education and the nation’s rapidly evolving acceptance of marijuana. Medical cannabis is now legal in twenty-eight states and the District of Columbia. As of the 2016 election, eight states, including California, have also legalized cannabis for recreational use. California has a long history of national leadership in medical cannabis research and advocacy. Medical Cannabis: A Clinical Focus from SSU and UPG, is a course designed for pharmacists, physicians, Registered Nurses and healthcare professionals. Taught by respected nurse Eloise Theisen MSN, RN, AGPCNP-BC, the seminar will also feature Dr. Donald Land, Chief Scientific Consultant to Steep Hill Labs, Inc., and Professor of Chemistry at UC Davis. Topics will cover the Endocannabinoid System, an Introduction to Cannabinoids and Terpenes, Drug to Drug Interactions, Understanding FECO (Full Extract Cannabis Oil), as well as Legal Implications--among other topics. Live streaming of this event is also available. United Patients Group is a global leader in helping patients and families navigate a rapidly evolving and complex cannabis marketplace. Founded to serve as advisors to both patients and physicians, UPG has recently blazed a trail as a leader in medical cannabis education, offering (CEU credentialed) courses at California Northstate Medical University, which educates and trains pharmacists, and elsewhere. Registration is required. For more information, please visit http://unitedpatientsgroup.com/SSU.