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Fleming J.,University of Southampton | Bailey D.L.,Royal North Shore Hospital | Chan H.-K.,University of Sydney | Conway J.,University of Southampton | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery | Year: 2012

Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) can be used to measure the three-dimensional (3D) distribution of inhaled aerosol deposition in the lungs. This is of value in evaluating and optimizing drug delivery by inhalation. 3D imaging has the advantage over planar scintigraphy of giving better data on the distribution of deposition within the lung. There are a variety of different methods of acquisition and analysis of the data, which makes interpretation of results difficult to compare between centers. This article describes a standardized protocol that aims to overcome this problem. Although not being completely prescriptive, it presents the key recommendations that are necessary to ensure consistency. In addition to radiolabel validation, these are (i) having some form of accountability of the activity measurements as quality control, (ii) producing quantitative images by performing attenuation and preferably scatter correction, (iii) defining volumes of interest and calculating parameters in the manner described, and (iv) describing in any report the details of technique used. When carefully used, SPECT imaging is able to produce high-quality quantitative data of the 3D distribution of drug deposition within the lungs. By establishing a standardized protocol, results of 3D imaging of the deposition of orally inhaled aerosols using SPECT should be more comparable, which should enhance collaborations between centers and insure that this form of imaging becomes acceptable to the regulatory authorities. © Copyright 2012, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Source


Pagliaroli A.,CNR Institute of Environmental Geology and Geoengineering | Quadrio B.,CNR Institute of Environmental Geology and Geoengineering | Lanzo G.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Sano T.,Scientific Consultant
Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering | Year: 2014

Historical sources report that Rome has experienced considerable earthquake ground motion in the past, even though it is quite far from high-magnitude seismogenic sources. Damage distribution seems to be predominantly controlled by ground shaking amplification related to local soil conditions. In this context a multidisciplinary research project has been conducted to determine the seismic microzonation of the Central Archaeological Area of Rome, which includes the Palatine Hill, Roman Forum, and Coliseum. In particular, the present paper details the results of one and bi-dimensional site response analyses carried out within this project, focusing discussion on representative cross-sections. The peculiarity of this work stems from the fact that it represents the first systematic study on the seismic site response of Rome's historical centre based on a robust subsoil model which integrates a large amount of available and original geological, geophysical and geotechnical data. Investigation of the physical phenomena responsible for site effects shows that ground motion distribution is mainly controlled by 1D resonance phenomena and 2D effects associated with soft alluvial valleys bordering the Palatine Hill, a deep paleo-valley and, to a lesser extent, topography and the morphology of anthropogenic deposits. The analyses show maximum amplification factors, defined in terms of Housner Intensity, as high as 1.4-1.8 over the period range of 0.1-1.0 s. Such values can be significantly relevant for the monumental and archaeological heritage of this area, as many are highly vulnerable due to their great age. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source


This paper reviews the history of African wild asses in the Giardino Zoologico of Rome, highlighting their relevance to taxonomy of Equus africanus (von Heuglin & Fitzinger, 1866). Specifically, it is demonstrated that the so-called Munich/Catskill stock of African wild ass originated from three animals imported in Rome from Eritrean Danakil in August 1932. Available evidence suggests that contrary to some recent statements, these 'wild' asses were not related to the Nubian wild ass and are better considered as the result of some intergradations between Somali wild asses and local Danakil donkeys. © 2014 . Source


Cantu A.A.,Scientific Consultant
Forensic Science International | Year: 2015

The evaporation of a solution consisting of a non-volatile solute dissolved in a volatile solvent has been previously treated using a simple model called the beaker model. This model considers the solution to be in a non-porous container that has vertical walls like a glass beaker and assumes the solution is an ideal solution so that Raoult's law is obeyed. A particular novel finding was that under a certain condition, the evaporation or aging curve of the solution has a point of maximum acceleration. Prior to this point, the solution is in its fast drying mode and after this point, it is in its slow drying mode. This phenomenon is observed in the drying of many writing inks. In this work this model is modified to consider the evaporation of (a) a non-ideal solution, (b) a solution that become saturated, (c) a solution on a glass slide, and (d) a solution on a porous substrate. In each of these cases, the existence and location of the point of maximum acceleration of the drying process are examined. These modifications lead to a description of the dying process of a solution that is remarkably similar to that of writing inks but obtained via an entirely different physical model. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source


Weyermann C.,University of Lausanne | Almog J.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem | Bugler J.,Institute of Forensic Science | Cantu A.A.,Scientific Consultant
Forensic Science International | Year: 2011

Several ink dating methods based on solvents analysis using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) were proposed in the last decades. These methods follow the drying of solvents from ballpoint pen inks on paper and seem very promising. However, several questions arose over the last few years among questioned documents examiners regarding the transparency and reproducibility of the proposed techniques. These questions should be carefully studied for accurate and ethical application of this methodology in casework. Inspired by a real investigation involving ink dating, the present paper discusses this particular issue throughout four main topics: aging processes, dating methods, validation procedures and data interpretation. This work presents a wide picture of the ink dating field, warns about potential shortcomings and also proposes some solutions to avoid reporting errors in court. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source

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