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Mesnoua M.,Scientific and Technical Research Center for Arid Areas | Mesnoua M.,University of Mostaganem | Mateos-Naranjo E.,University of Seville | Barcia-Piedras J.M.,University of Seville | And 3 more authors.
Plant Physiology and Biochemistry | Year: 2016

The xero-halophyte Atriplex halimus L., recently described as Cd-hyperaccumulator, was examined to determine Cd toxicity threshold and the physiological mechanisms involved in Cd tolerance. An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of cadmium from 0 to 1350 μM on chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, gas exchange, photosynthetic pigment concentrations and antioxidative enzyme activities of A. halimus. Cadmium, calcium, iron, manganese, magnesium, potassium, phosphorous, sodium and zinc concentrations were also analyzed. Plants of A. halimus were not able to survive at 1350 μM Cd and the upper tolerance limit was recorded at 650 μM Cd; although chlorosis was observed from 200 μM Cd. Cadmium accumulation increased with increase in Cd supply, reaching maxima of 0.77 and 4.65 mg g-1 dry weight in shoots and roots, respectively, at 650 μM Cd. Dry mass, shoot length, specific leaf area, relative growth rate, net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, pigments contents and chlorophyll fluorescence were significantly reduced by increasing Cd concentration. However, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD; EC1.15.1.1), catalase (CAT; EC1.11.1.6) and guaiacol peroxidase (GPx; EC1.11.1.7) were significantly induced by Cd. Exposures to Cd caused also a significant decrease in P contents in roots, Mg and Mn contents in shoots and Fe and K contents in roots and shoots and had no effect on Ca, Na and Zn contents. The tolerance of A. halimus to Cd stress might be related with its capacity to avoid the translocation of great amounts of Cd in its aboveground tissues and higher activities of enzymatic antioxidants in the leaf. © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS.


Laouisset M.B.,Scientific and Technical Research Center for Arid Areas | Dellal A.,Université Ibn Khaldoun
Agris On-line Papers in Economics and Informatics | Year: 2016

This paper estimates the reference Evapotranspiration (ET0) and Water requirements of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in Ksar-Chellala region, Algeria, for one dry year by using CROPWAT software. Determination of Evapotranspiration (ET) is important in application such as irrigation design, irrigation scheduling, water resource management, hydrology and cropping systems modeling. Estimation of crop water requirements of barley (CWRb) respected the methodology adopted by the service of development and management service of FAO, based on the use of software CROPWAT 8.0. The total water requirements for barley depend on a variety of target yields and crops management. The period of climatic data used is 23 years (1990-2012), the average rain in this period is 254 mm. The total rain of the dry year is 190 mm. The results of this study show, during the vegetative cycle of barley which is 6 months, the calculation of ET0 is 453 mm, the potential water which was used by the crop barley is estimated at 281.4 mm, the efficiency of rainfall is 69 mm and a total water requirements of barley (CWRb) equals to 211 mm, this amount distributed on three months coincided with important stages of development in barley. The supplementary irrigation in these conditions with optimal contents equals water requirements estimated by CROPWAT software that increases significantly grain yield of barely. Consequently, the gross irrigation water requirements (GIWR) of 1250000 ha which project to grow barley in the Algerian steppes regions are estimated at 3.77 billion and this for a dry year and a irrigation efficiency of 70%.


Labdelli A.,Université Ibn Khaldoun | Adda A.,Université Ibn Khaldoun | Halis Y.,Scientific and Technical Research Center for Arid Areas | Soualem S.,Université Ibn Khaldoun
Journal of Botany | Year: 2014

Yield improvement of durum wheat is considerably limited by the expression of environmental abiotic factors. Water deficits are one of these limiting factors. Plants develop various strategies to tolerate the effects of water deficit. Some of such mechanisms might occur in the root and stem systems. The present study aimed to investigate some anatomical traits contributing to the drought tolerance in the durum wheat. The anatomical variations of the meristem of roots and stems, as a response to water deficit, were evaluated. The results indicated that the enhancement of the intensity of water deficit was accompanied by profound structural changes in the piliferous zone of roots. Water deficit caused a significant decrease in the diameter of the newly formed adventitious roots, which can be explained by a reduction in the thickness of the cortical parenchyma, through the reduction of cell size. This action was usually a contrary effect in the principal adventitious roots. The study also showed that increasing the intensity of water deficit reduced the diameter of vessels in the primary xylem, thereby increasing the hydraulic resistance of roots and lowering the flow of sap. © 2014 Amina Labdelli et al.


Halis Y.,University of Oum El Bouaghi | Halis Y.,Scientific and Technical Research Center for Arid Areas | Djehichi S.,University of Oum El Bouaghi | Senoussi M.M.,University of Oum El Bouaghi
Trees - Structure and Function | Year: 2012

In the developing xylem bundles of young stems, the presence of immature living vessel elements can strongly restrict or even block axial hydraulic conductance, especially in newly matured vessels. Lateral connections between vessels may provide an alternative pathway for water movement to bypass these closed, living elements. Using the grapevine as a model system, the present study aimed to demonstrate the effects of living vessel elements on water movement patterns, and the importance of lateral flow for effective water conductivity in the developing bundles. Living vessel elements were detected using dye staining and the pattern of vessel development and maturation was then monitored. The importance of lateral flow was confirmed using several approaches: (1) capacity for lateral flow, (2) effect of increasing the distance of water transport, and (3) effect of ion concentrations. Living vessel elements were found along the developing bundles, they occupied a significant proportion of the distal and peripheral parts of the flow path, forming a substantial barrier to apoplastic water flow. Water in the developing xylem bundles could move easily from vessel to vessel and between secondary and primary xylem. Furthermore, data from increasing the transport length and altering the ion concentrations supported the critical contribution of the lateral flow to the total hydraulic conductance within the developing bundles. The hydraulic architecture of the developing xylem bundles is described. The results are discussed in terms of reliability and efficiency of water transport during shoot growth and development. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


Halis Y.,Scientific and Technical Research Center for Arid Areas | Halis Y.,University of Oum El Bouaghi | Mayouf R.,Scientific and Technical Research Center for Arid Areas | Benhaddya M.L.,Scientific and Technical Research Center for Arid Areas | Belhamra M.,Scientific and Technical Research Center for Arid Areas
Journal of Plant Research | Year: 2013

The main objective of this study was to evaluate the role of intervessel contacts in determining the patterns of hydraulic integration both within and between xylem sectors. The degree of intervessel contacts and the lateral exchange capability within and between sectors were examined and correlated in different xeric shrubs. A dye injection method was used to detect the connections between vessels; an apoplastic dye was sucked through a known number of vessels and its distribution in the xylem network was followed. Hydraulic techniques were used to measure axial and tangential conductivity both within and between xylem sectors. The intra- and inter-sector integration indexes were then determined as the ratio of tangential to axial conductance. Species differed significantly in the degree of intervessel contacts, intra- and inter-sector integration index. In all cases, hydraulic integration was observed to be higher within sector than between sectors. From the correlation analyses, the intervessel contacts showed a very weak relationship with inter-sector integration index and a strong positive relationship with intra-sector integration index. Results suggested that (1) the factors affecting patterns of lateral flow within xylem sectors might be relatively different from those between sectors. (2) The degree of intervessel contacts was a major determinant of hydraulic integration within the same xylem sector. (3) Intervessel connectivity alone was a poor predictor of hydraulic integration between different sectors, implying a significant contribution of other anatomical, physiological and environmental factors in determining the patterns of integrated-sectored transport within woody stems. © 2012 The Botanical Society of Japan and Springer.


Mihoub A.,University of Ouargla | Mihoub A.,Scientific and Technical Research Center for Arid Areas | Daddi Bouhoun M.,University of Ouargla | Saker M.L.,University of Ouargla
Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis | Year: 2016

Crop response to the phosphorus (P) application is often erratic in most soil types in the world. In Algeria, there is no information on the P behavior in calcareous soils. The purposes of this work were to investigate the degree of P fixing capacity and to predict P fertilizer requirements of crops according to calcareous levels in the soil. Soil samples (at 0–30 cm depth) were collected and spiked with 0, 25 and 50% of lime (CaCO3). Phosphate sorption curves were well fitted to the Freundlich equation. Results indicated that the calcareous level was predominantly controlled the P sorption indices [sorption capacity (a), and P sorption energy (n)] to affect the estimation of external d P requirement (EPR0.2) and P fertilizer rates. The understanding of P sorption and desorption by soils and extrapolating the developed relationship between soil calcareous contents and P fertilizer rates would be quite promising and accurate approach for the economic and effective use of P fertilizers in calcareous soils of Algeria. © 2016 Taylor & Francis.


Bachi O.E.,University of Ouargla | Bachi O.E.,Scientific and Technical Research Center for Arid Areas | Halilat M.T.,University of Ouargla | Bissati S.,University of Ouargla
Energy Procedia | Year: 2015

The present study was conducted to compare between two treatments of wastewater processes (wastewater treatment plants "WWTP" and wastewater treatment by activated sludge "WWTAS"). To compare the physical and chemical parameters, water was analyzed at the entrance and the exit of each station. Results showed that during the study period, the average removal rates in the case of WWTAS were 85% for SS, 90% for filtered BOD5 and 90% for COD. While in the case of WWTP; the average removal rates were: 92% for SS, 88% for BOD5 and 90% for COD. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.


Kherifi W.,Annaba University | Kherifi W.,Scientific and Technical Research Center for Arid Areas | Bousnoubra-Kherici H.,Annaba University
Water Resources | Year: 2016

Nowadays, the problems of rejections constitute an increasingly important danger in the receiving mediums. Indeed, water is increasingly affected by minerals and organic matters and even by the micro-organisms of which some are pathogenic and thus dangerous for the ecosystem. In this context, the present study was conducted to investigate the microbiological pollution of water of the lake Mellah, located in the national park of El Kala, North-eastern Algerian. This lake is a depression which communicates with the sea and flowing the domestic effluents of the neighbouring localities. The physicochemical parameters (Temperature, pH; Eh; Electric conductivity; Salinity, Turbidity, and O2) and bacteriological (coliformes total, coliformes thermo tolerant, streptococci) were followed during the year 2011 with a seasonal frequency (February, May, August, November). Seventeen (17) sites of three different habitats were investigated; the waste-water treatment plant (WWTP), Wadis and their upstream to the estuary and the lake. The follow-up of analysis of the physicochemical and biological parameters in the various points of observation was the object of a graphs data processing and statistics (ACP) to determine the bacteriological degree of pollution. Results showed a contamination by the fecal matter with a gradient decreasing from the upstream of the discharge system towards the downstream. Compared to rain waters, microbiological pollution in the lake was selective in time. The CT and the CTT decreased in dry season where the ambient conditions (salinity, pH and temperature) become unfavorable, putting the factor salinity concerned to degrade the water pollution. © 2016, Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.


Benaissa M.H.,National Veterinary School of Algiers | Benaissa M.H.,Scientific and Technical Research Center for Arid Areas | Faye B.,Camel project UTF SAU 044 SAU | Faye B.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Kaidi R.,Blida University
Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2014

The aims of the present study were to investigate the prevalence of ovarian hydrobursitis, and its pathologic and histopathologic characteristics in slaughtered female camels. The reproductive tracts of 740 female camels were collected and examined from January 2011 to February 2013, in two abattoirs from southeast Algeria. Ovarian hydrobursitis was observed in 32 reproductive tracts (4.32%); unilaterally (n=17) or bilaterally (n=15). The frequency of right side and left side ovarian hydrobursitis was not significantly different. It was associated with peri-uterine adhesion, pyometra, and paraovarian cysts. The affection was observed in some pregnant cases. Microscopic examination revealed diffuse edema, capillary congestion, infiltration, and heavy infiltration of mononuclear cellular, cystic dilatation of multi-acinal structures, desquamation and hyperplasia of the epithelial lining, tiny hemorrhages, and a large number of hemosiderin-laden macrophages. In conclusion, this study has identified the prevalence and the main anatomical and histopathological features the ovarian hydrobursitis. This syndrome is a serious problem affecting the fertility in dromedary camel in Algeria.


Benaissa M.H.,National Veterinary School of Algiers | Benaissa M.H.,Scientific and Technical Research Center for Arid Areas | Faye B.,Camel project UTF SAU 044 SAU | Faye B.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Kaidi R.,Blida University
Journal of Camel Practice and Research | Year: 2015

Reproductive tract abnormalities have a high impact on sexual activity and fertility. Knowledge of factors related to reproductive disorders is important towards understanding the variability prevalences and features of these anomalies. The relationship between season, age, breed, and the body condition score, and the prevalence of reproductive abnormalities in female dromedary camels were analysed in an observational study on 740 dromedary females. Data were obtained from 2 abattoirs in southeast Algeria from 2011 to 2013. The associations between reproductive abnormalities and the different factors were determined using a chi-square test. Various abnormalities with different degrees of severity were observed in 213 (28.8%) cases. Reproductive abnormalities were significantly associated with age group and season. The percentages of reproductive abnormalities recorded did not differ significantly among breeds and abattoir location. The findings indicated a significant relationship between reproductive disorders and the body condition score. The prevalence of overall reproductive abnormalities significantly varied between the wet and dry seasons. Abnormalities were significantly more frequent during the wet seasons (autumn, winter) than during the dry seasons (spring, summer). Based on these findings, the increased prevalence of reproductive disorders was associated with dry season, older age, and low body condition.

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