Typhoon Scientific and Production Association

Obninsk, Russia

Typhoon Scientific and Production Association

Obninsk, Russia
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Korshunov V.A.,Typhoon Scientific and Production Association | Zubachev D.S.,Typhoon Scientific and Production Association
Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics | Year: 2017

Lidar polarization measurements of stratospheric aerosol were performed over Obninsk in 2012–2015. In all, over 300 altitude profiles of the aerosol backscattering coefficient at a wavelength of 532 nm in the altitude interval from 10 to 40 km were obtained. Overall, the measured aerosol backscattering characteristics are close to the known background values. During spring 2013, an elevated content of spherical-type aerosol was noted in the tropopause region, seemingly associated with sedimentation of aerosol structures formed during the fall of the Chelyabinsk meteorite. In July 2014 and 2015, layers of increased aerosol scattering were observed in the altitude interval from 10 to 15 km, associated with transcontinental transport of aerosol from Canadian forest fires. Integrated backscattering and extinction characteristics are estimated for the lower (from tropopause level to 15 km) and middle (from 15 to 30 km) stratospheric layers. It is found that the contribution of the lower layer to these optical characteristics is 1.8 and 1.6 times larger than the contribution of the middle layer. © 2017, Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.


Smirnov V.V.,Typhoon Scientific and Production Association
Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics | Year: 2010

According to observations during the winters of 2005–2007 in the central part of the European territory of Russia (ETR), the influxes, sinks, and the state of the atmospheric aerosol with a diameter D = 3–100 nm were determined primarily by the mixing conditions in the lower troposphere and the prehistory of the air masses. In contrast to the well-studied emissions of new aerosols (ENA) in the boreal forests of Northern Europe, in the mixed forests of the Central ETR, intense ENAs were observed not only in anticyclones but also in cyclones, as well during the change of atmospheric fronts. The time interval from the onset of the ENA to the time that the particle inflow reached a maximum was tens of minutes, whereas Northern Europe was characterized by time spans on the order of a few hours. The aerosol emissions were found to be less significantly related to the wind speed and direction, as well as with the state of the underlying surface. The occurrences of regular ENAs coincided with the onsets of the morning breakdown of nighttime near- ground inversions. The ENA stopped after the upper boundary of the inversion layer reached the 150- to 200-m level. In 50–60% of the episodes, the number N, area density S, and mass M concentrations of new particles reached N = (3–5) × 105 1/cm3, S = 200–330 μm2/cm3, and M = 50 μg/m3, a factor of 50–500 larger than the nighttime minima and a few orders of magnitude larger than the background values. Sinks of the aerosol particles to the underlying surface took place from the time of the formation of the evening inversions up to the beginning of the morning breakdown of the layer. For the analysis, we used the data of the electric spectrometers of aerosols with D = 3–1000 nm, data of acoustic sensing, and the vertical transects of the temperature and wind speed and direction at the atmospheric depth of 4–300 m measured during meteorological tower observations in Obninsk. © 2010, Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.

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