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Sint-Katelijne-Waver, Belgium

Alvarez-Perez S.,CSIC - Donana Biological Station | Lievens B.,Leuven University College | Lievens B.,Scientia Terrae Research Institute | Jacquemyn H.,Catholic University of Leuven | Herrera C.M.,CSIC - Donana Biological Station
International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology | Year: 2013

The taxonomic status of 14 strains of members of the genus Acinetobacter isolated from floral nectar of wild Mediterranean insect-pollinated plants, which did not belong to any previously described species within this genus, was investigated following a polyphasic approach. Confirmation that these strains formed two separate lineages within the genus Acinetobacter was obtained from comparative analysis of the partial sequences of the 16S rRNA gene and the gene encoding the β-subunit of RNA polymerase (rpoB), DNA-DNA reassociation data, determination of the DNA G+C content and physiological tests. The names Acinetobacter nectaris sp. nov. and Acinetobacter boissieri sp. nov. are proposed. The type strain of A. nectaris sp. nov. is SAP 763.2T (=LMG 26958T=CECT8127T) and that of A. boissieri sp. nov. is SAP 284.1T (=LMG 26959T=CECT8128T). © 2013 IUMS Printed in Great Britain. Source

Jacquemyn H.,Catholic University of Leuven | Brys R.,Research Institute for Nature and Forest | Honnay O.,Catholic University of Leuven | Roldan-Ruiz I.,Belgium Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research | And 3 more authors.
New Phytologist | Year: 2012

• Nonrandomspecies-species associations may arise from a range of factors, including localized dispersal, intra- and interspecific interactions and heterogeneous environmental conditions. Because seed germination and establishment in orchids are critically dependent upon the availability of suitable mycorrhizal fungi, species-species associations in orchids may reflect associations with mycorrhizal fungi. • To test this hypothesis, we examined spatial association patterns, mycorrhizal associations and germination success in a hybrid zone containing three species of the genus Orchis (Orchis anthropophora, Orchis militaris and Orchis purpurea). • Hybridizationoccurred predominantly between O. purpurea and O. militaris. The spatial distribution patterns of most pure species and hybrids were independent from each other, except that of O. purpurea and its hybrids. The fungal community composition of established individuals differed significantly between pure species, but not between hybrids and O. purpurea. Seed germination experiments using pure seeds showed that the highest number of protocorms were found in regions where adult individuals were most abundant. In the case of hybrid seeds, germination was restricted to areas where the mother plant was most abundant. • Overall, these results suggest that the observed nonrandom spatial distribution of both pure and hybrid plants is dependent on the contingencies of the spatial distribution of suitable mycorrhizal fungi. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust. Source

Bailarote B.C.,Catholic University of Leuven | Lievens B.,Scientia Terrae Research Institute | Lievens B.,Leuven University College | Jacquemyn H.,Catholic University of Leuven
American Journal of Botany | Year: 2012

• Premise of the study: Orchids rely on mycorrhizal fungi for seed germination, and many species maintain associations during later stages in their life cycle. Because of the critical dependence of orchids on fungi it has been suggested that the degree of mycorrhizal specificity may be associated with rarity and long-term survival of orchid species, especially in highly degraded or fragmented landscapes. To test this hypothesis, we compared mycorrhizal communities in two species that differed signifi- cantly in decline in Belgium and other parts of Europe. • Methods: Mycorrhizal associations were investigated in five populations of Anacamptis morio and Dactylorhiza fuchsii in Belgium. ITS-based DNA arrays were used for simultaneous detection and identification of a wide range of basidiomycetous mycorrhizal fungi. Mycorrhizal specificity, measured as phylogenetic diversity, was assessed for each population and compared between species. • Key results: For both species, the degree of phylogenetic relatedness of the mycorrhizal partners was low, and both species were associated with a large number of fungal lineages related to clades of the Tulasnellaceae family. Contrary to expectations, the species that was apparently resilient to decline was associated with fewer fungal operational taxonomical units than the declining species was, and the phylogenetic relatedness of mycorrhizal communities among populations was higher in the stable than in the declining orchid. • Conclusions: Although our results do not present detailed insights into the causes of orchid persistence, they do suggest that orchid rarity and persistence are not necessarily related to fungal diversity and that other factors may be more important in determining orchid persistence. © 2012 Botanical Society of America. Source

Hanssen I.M.,Scientia Terrae Research Institute | Thomma B.P.H.J.,Wageningen University
Molecular Plant Pathology | Year: 2010

Taxonomy: Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) belongs to the Potexvirus genus of the Flexiviridae family. Physical properties: PepMV virions are nonenveloped flexuous rods that contain a monopartite, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA genome of 6.4 kb with a 3′ poly-A tail. The genome contains five major open reading frames (ORFs) encoding a 164-kDa RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), three triple gene block proteins of 26, 14 and 9 kDa, and a 25-kDa coat protein. Genome diversity: Four PepMV genotypes, with an intergenotype RNA sequence identity ranging from 78% to 95%, can be distinguished: the original Peruvian genotype (LP); the European (tomato) genotype (EU); the American genotype US1; and the Chilean genotype CH2. Transmission: PepMV is very efficiently transmitted mechanically, and a low seed transmission rate has been demonstrated. In addition, bumblebees have been associated with viral transmission. Host range: Similar to other Potexviruses, PepMV has a rather narrow host range that is thought to be largely restricted to species of the Solanaceae family. After originally being isolated from pepino (Solanum muricatum), PepMV has been identified in natural infections of the wild tomato species S. chilense, S. chmielewskii, S. parviflorum and S. peruvianum. PepMV is causing significant problems in the cultivation of the glasshouse tomato Solanum lycopersicum, and has been identified in weeds belonging to various plant families in the vicinity of tomato glasshouses. Symptomatology: PepMV symptoms can be very diverse. Fruit marbling is the most typical and economically devastating symptom. In addition, fruit discoloration, open fruit, nettle-heads, leaf blistering or bubbling, leaf chlorosis and yellow angular leaf spots, leaf mosaic and leaf or stem necrosis have been associated with PepMV. The severity of PepMV symptoms is thought to be dependent on environmental conditions, as well as on the properties of the viral isolate. Minor nucleotide sequence differences between isolates from the same genotype have been shown to lead to enhanced aggressiveness and symptomatology. Control: Prevention of infection through strict hygiene measures is currently the major strategy for the control of PepMV in tomato production. Cross-protection can be effective, but only under well-defined and well-controlled conditions, and the effectiveness depends strongly on the PepMV genotype. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

Jacquemyn H.,Catholic University of Leuven | Deja A.,Catholic University of Leuven | de hert K.,Catholic University of Leuven | Cachapa Bailarote B.,Catholic University of Leuven | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Background: Orchid species rely on mycorrhizal symbioses with fungi to complete their life cycle. Although there is mounting evidence that orchids can associate with several fungi from different clades or families, less is known about the actual geographic distribution of these fungi and how they are distributed across different orchid species within a genus. Methodology/Principal Findings: We investigated among-population variation in mycorrhizal associations in five species of the genus Dactylorhiza (D. fuchsii, D. incarnata, D. maculata, D. majalis and D. praetermissa) using culture-independent detection and identification techniques enabling simultaneous detection of multiple fungi in a single individual. Mycorrhizal specificity, determined as the number of fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs), and phylogenetic diversity of fungi were compared between species, whereas discriminant analysis was used to compare mycorrhizal spectra across populations and species. Based on a 95% cut-off value in internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence similarity, a total of ten OTUs was identified belonging to three different clades within the Tulasnellaceae. Most OTUs were found in two or more Dactylorhiza species, and some of them were common and widespread, occurring in more than 50% of all sampled populations. Each orchid species associated with at least five different OTUs, whereas most individuals also associated with two or more fungal OTUs at the same time. Phylogenetic diversity, corrected for species richness, was not significantly different between species, confirming the generality of the observed orchid mycorrhizal associations. Conclusions/Significance: We found that the investigated species of the genus Dactylorhiza associated with a wide range of fungal OTUs from the Tulasnellaceae, some of which were widespread and common. These findings challenge the idea that orchid rarity is related to mycorrhizal specificity and fungal distribution. © 2012 Jacquemyn et al. Source

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