Science to Practice Ltd.

Ljubljana, Slovenia

Science to Practice Ltd.

Ljubljana, Slovenia
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Greblo Jurakic Z.,University of Zagreb | Krizanic V.,Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek | Sarabon N.,University of Primorska | Sarabon N.,Science to Practice Ltd. | And 2 more authors.
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research | Year: 2017

Background: There is limited research about beneficial effects of physical activity in older adults suffering from mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Aim: The aim of the study was to provide preliminary evidence on the effects of two types of non-aerobic training on cognitive functions in older women suffering from MCI. Methods: Twenty-eight participants aged 66–78 years with MCI were randomly assigned to a combined balance and core resistance training group (n = 14) or to a Pilates group (n = 14). Results: Following completion of the 8-week exercise programme, both groups showed significant improvements in global and specific cognitive domains. Conclusion: Findings suggest that non-aerobic training should be further explored as a beneficial intervention for older adults suffering from MCI. © 2017 Springer International Publishing Switzerland


Fonda B.,University of Ljubljana | Sarabon N.,Science to Practice Ltd. | Sarabon N.,University of Primorska | Li F.-X.,University of Birmingham
Journal of Sports Sciences | Year: 2015

Research on how human balance and control bicycles are inconclusive, largely due to the small number of participants in the previous studies. Therefore, the aim of this study was to test the hypotheses that 1) cycling lateral deviation amplitude will reliably show differences between more and less experienced cyclists and 2) more experienced will exhibit slower and smaller steering motions compared to the less experienced cyclists. Twenty-eight experienced and inexperienced cyclists rode a bicycle in a straight line. Lateral deviation, steering and roll were measured. Intersession reliability of the deviation was high with Cronbach’s alpha values higher than 0.75. The amplitude, variability and rate of steering and roll parameters showed statistically significant differences between the groups. The test used in this study is sensitive to detect differences between more and less experienced cyclists and can be used for further research that aims to test the effect of a specific intervention addressing rider control. We also showed that steering and roll angle, which were described before as two of the main motor control actions in bicycle control, differ in the variability, amplitude and rate between more and less experienced cyclists. The results of the present study have practical implications for improving bicycle rider control and increasing the safety of cyclists. © 2015 Taylor & Francis


Savic M.,Science to Practice Ltd. | Fonda B.,Science to Practice Ltd. | Fonda B.,University of Birmingham | Sarabon N.,Science to Practice Ltd. | Sarabon N.,University of Primorska
Journal of Thermal Biology | Year: 2013

Whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) involves exposing minimally dressed participants to very cold air (injecting liquid nitrogen with temperature -195 °C), either in a specially designed chamber (cryo-chamber) or cabin (cryo-cabin), for a short period of time. The aim of this study was to examine the actual temperature of the air in the cryo-cabin at different locations throughout the cabin by using human subjects and a manikin. Additionally, we monitored skin temperature before and for 60. min after the cryo-cabin session. Twelve subjects completed one 3. min cryo-cabin session. Temperature next to the skin was assessed during the session, while the skin temperature was monitored before, 3. min after and every 10. min for 60. min after completing the session. There was a statistically significant interaction (time×position) for temperature among the different body parts during the WBC, and for skin temperature among different body parts after the cryo-cabin session. Statistically significant time effects during and following cryo-cabin session were present for all body parts. We showed that actual temperature in the cryo-cabin is substantially different from the one reported by the manufacturer. Thermal response after cryo-cabin session is similar to response observed after cryo-chamber cold exposure reported in previously published studies. This could be of great practical value as cryo-cabins are less expensive and easier to use compared to cryo-chambers. © 2013.


Sarabon N.,University of Primorska | Sarabon N.,Science to Practice Ltd | Panjan A.,Science to Practice Ltd | Rosker J.,University of Primorska | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine | Year: 2013

The purpose of this study was to use a holistic approach to investigate changes in jumping performance, kinaesthesia, static balance, isometric strength and fast stepping on spot during a 5- day recovery period, following an acute bout of damaging exercise consisted of drop jumps and leg curls, where specific emphasis was given on the hamstring muscles. Eleven young healthy subjects completed a series of highly intensive damaging exercises for their hamstring muscles. Prior to the exercise, and during the 5-day recovery period, the subjects were tested for biochemical markers (creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase), perceived pain sensation, physical performance (squat jump, counter movement jump, maximal frequency leg stamping, maximal isometric torque production and maximally explosive isometric torque production), kinaesthesia (active torque tracking) and static balance. We observed significant decreases in maximal isometric knee flexion torque production, the rate of torque production, and majority of the parameters for vertical jump performance. No alterations were found in kinaesthesia, static balance and fast stepping on spot. The highest drop in performance and increase in perceived pain sensation generally occurred 24 or 48 hours after the exercise. Damaging exercise substantially alters the neuromuscular functions of the hamstring muscles, which is specifically relevant for sports and rehabilitation experts, as the hamstrings are often stretched to significant lengths, in particular when the knee is extended and hip flexed. These findings are practically important for recovery after high-intensity trainings for hamstring muscles. © Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2013).


Fonda B.,University of Birmingham | Fonda B.,Science to Practice Ltd. | Sarabon N.,Science to Practice Ltd. | Sarabon N.,University of Primorska | Li F.-X.,University of Birmingham
Journal of Sports Sciences | Year: 2014

The most common bike fitting method to set the seat height is based on the knee angle when the pedal is in its lowest position, i.e. bottom dead centre (BDC). However, there is no consensus on what method should be used to measure the knee angle. Therefore, the first aim of this study was to compare three dynamic methods to each other and against a static method. The second aim was to test the intra-session reliability of the knee angle at BDC measured by dynamic methods. Eleven cyclists performed five 3-min cycling trials; three at different seat heights (25°, 30° and 35° knee angle at BDC according to static measure) and two at preferred seat height. Thirteen infrared cameras (3D), a high-speed camera (2D), and an electrogoniometer were used to measure the knee angle during pedalling, when the pedal was at the BDC. Compared to 3D kinematics, all other methods statistically significantly underestimated the knee angle (P = 0.00; η2 = 0.73). All three dynamic methods have been found to be substantially different compared to the static measure (effect sizes between 0.4 and 0.6). All dynamic methods achieved good intra-session reliability. 2D kinematics is a valid tool for knee angle assessment during bike fitting. However, for higher precision, one should use correction factor by adding 2.2° to the measured value. © 2014 Taylor & Francis.


Fonda B.,Science to Practice Ltd. | Fonda B.,University of Birmingham | De Nardi M.,Krioplanet Ltd. | Sarabon N.,Science to Practice Ltd. | Sarabon N.,University of Primorska
Journal of Thermal Biology | Year: 2014

Whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) is the exposure of minimally dressed participants to very cold air, either in a specially designed chamber (cryo-chamber) or cabin (cryo-cabin), for a short period of time. Practitioners are vague when it comes to recommendations on the duration of a single session. Recommended exposure for cryo-chamber is 150. s, but no empirically based recommendations are available for a cryo-cabin. Therefore the aim of this study was to examine thermal and cardio-vascular responses after 90, 120, 150 and 180. s of WBC in a cryo-cabin. Our hypothesis was that skin temperature would be significantly lower after longer exposers. Twelve male participants (age 23.9±4.2 years) completed four WBC of different durations (90, 120, 150 and 180. s) in a cryo-cabin. Thermal response, heart rate and blood pressure were measured prior, immediately after, 5. min after and 30. min after the session. Skin temperature differed significantly among different durations, except between 150 and 180. s. There was no significant difference in heart rate and blood pressure. Thermal discomfort during a single session displayed a linear increase throughout the whole session. Our results indicate that practitioners and clinicians using cryo-cabin for WBC do not need to perform sessions longer than 150. s. We have shown that longer sessions do not substantially affect thermal and cardio-vascular response, but do increase thermal discomfort. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


De Nardi M.,Krioplanet Ltd. | La Torre A.,University of Milan | Benis R.,University of Milan | Sarabon N.,Science to Practice Ltd. | And 2 more authors.
Cryobiology | Year: 2015

Flexibility is an intrinsic property of body tissues, which among other factors determines the range of motion (ROM). A decrease in neural activation of the muscle has been linked with greater ROM. Cryotherapy is an effective technique to reduces neural activation. Hence, the aim of the present study was to evaluate if a single session of whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) affects ROM. 60 women and 60 men were divided into two groups (control and experimental). After the initial sit-and-reach test, experimental group performed a 150 s session of WBC, whereas the control group stayed in thermo-neutral environment. Immediately after, both groups performed another sit-and-reach test. A 3-way analysis of variance revealed statistically significant time. ×. group and time × gender interaction. Experimental groups improved sit-and-reach amplitude to a greater extend than the control group. Our results support the hypothesis that ROM is increased immediately after a single session of WBC. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.


PubMed | University of Primorska, Science to Practice Ltd., Krioplanet Ltd. and University of Milan
Type: Clinical Trial | Journal: Cryobiology | Year: 2015

Flexibility is an intrinsic property of body tissues, which among other factors determines the range of motion (ROM). A decrease in neural activation of the muscle has been linked with greater ROM. Cryotherapy is an effective technique to reduces neural activation. Hence, the aim of the present study was to evaluate if a single session of whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) affects ROM. 60 women and 60 men were divided into two groups (control and experimental). After the initial sit-and-reach test, experimental group performed a 150s session of WBC, whereas the control group stayed in thermo-neutral environment. Immediately after, both groups performed another sit-and-reach test. A 3-way analysis of variance revealed statistically significant timegroup and timegender interaction. Experimental groups improved sit-and-reach amplitude to a greater extend than the control group. Our results support the hypothesis that ROM is increased immediately after a single session of WBC.

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