Brown A.S.,National Physical Laboratory United Kingdom |
Brown R.J.C.,National Physical Laboratory United Kingdom |
Coleman P.J.,Science and Evidence Team |
Conolly C.,Aea Environment And Energy |
And 6 more authors.
Environmental Sciences: Processes and Impacts | Year: 2013
The impact of human activities on the health of the population and of the wider environment has prompted action to monitor the presence of toxic compounds in the atmosphere. Toxic organic micropollutants (TOMPs) are some of the most insidious and persistent of these pollutants. Since 1991 the United Kingdom has operated nationwide air quality networks to assess the presence of TOMPs, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), in ambient air. The data produced in 2010 marked 20 years of nationwide PAH monitoring. This paper marks this milestone by providing a novel and critical review of the data produced since nationwide monitoring began up to the end of 2011 (the latest year for which published data is available), discussing how the networks performing this monitoring has evolved, and elucidating trends in the concentrations of the PAHs measured. The current challenges in the area and a forward look to the future of air quality monitoring for PAHs are also discussed briefly. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry.
Newson S.E.,British Trust for Ornithology |
Leech D.I.,British Trust for Ornithology |
Hewson C.M.,British Trust for Ornithology |
Crick H.Q.P.,Natural England |
Grice P.V.,Science and Evidence Team
Journal of Ornithology | Year: 2010
Several woodland bird species have declined markedly in abundance in England over the past 40 years, whilst the grey squirrel Sciurus carolinensis, a non-native nest predator, has increased. Given the timing, there has been concern that grey squirrels have driven these declines, although there is little data to support this view. Using novel analytical methods and extensive national bird and grey squirrel monitoring data, we examine whether there is evidence that woodland bird populations in England have been depressed by grey squirrels and whether there is a relationship between nest failure and squirrel numbers. Our results indicate that grey squirrels are very unlikely to have driven observed declines of woodland birds in recent years, although the number of associations, positive as well as negative, between grey squirrels and woodland birds is greater than expected by chance. For this reason, we cannot exclude the possibility that the populations of a small number of bird species, principally increasing species, have been depressed to some degree at sites where a greater number of grey squirrels were present. Of these species, perhaps the most convincing evidence is for Common Blackbird Turdus merula and Eurasian Collared Dove Streptopelia decaocto where nest record data also identified a positive relationship between nest failure at the egg stage and squirrel abundance. © Dt. Ornithologen-Gesellschaft e.V. 2009.