Resource Science Center

Columbia, MO, United States

Resource Science Center

Columbia, MO, United States
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Al-Warid H.S.,University of Missouri | Al-Warid H.S.,University of Baghdad | Belsare A.V.,University of Missouri | Straka K.,Resource Science Center | Gompper M.E.,University of Missouri
Helminthologia (Poland) | Year: 2017

Baylisascaris procyonis is a helminth parasite of raccoons Procyon lotor and represents a health concern in paratenic hosts, including humans and diverse domestic and wildlife species. In North America the helminth is expanding its geographic range. To better understand patterns of infection in the Ozark region of the USA, raccoons (n = 61) were collected in 2013-2014 from five counties in Missouri and Arkansas, USA and necropsied. We documented B. procyonis in all surveyed locations. The overall prevalence of B. procyonis was 44.3 % (95 % CI = 31.9 - 57.4) and was significantly higher in females than males. There were also significant differences in prevalence among raccoons sampled north and south of the Missouri River. Mean intensity was 9.9 (CI = 5.44 - 17.22), and parasites were highly aggregated among hosts such that approximately 20 % of hosts harbor 90 % of parasites. These levels of parasitism indicate that B. procyonis is common in the region and its impacts on paratenic hosts could be qualitatively similar to effects observed in other localities. © 2017 Institute of Parasitology, SAS, Kosice.

Magoulick D.D.,U.S. Geological Survey | DiStefano R.J.,Resource Science Center | Imhoff E.M.,Resource Science Center | Imhoff E.M.,Thomas More College | And 2 more authors.
Hydrobiologia | Year: 2017

Crayfish are ecologically important in freshwater systems worldwide and are imperiled in North America and globally. We sought to examine landscape- to local-scale environmental variables related to occupancy and detection probability of a suite of stream-dwelling crayfish species. We used a quantitative kickseine method to sample crayfish presence at 102 perennial stream sites with eight surveys per site. We modeled occupancy (psi) and detection probability (P) and local- and landscape-scale environmental covariates. We developed a set of a priori candidate models for each species and ranked models using (Q)AICc. Detection probabilities and occupancy estimates differed among crayfish species with Orconectes eupunctus, O. marchandi, and Cambarus hubbsi being relatively rare (psi < 0.20) with moderate (0.46–0.60) to high (0.81) detection probability and O. punctimanus and O. ozarkae being relatively common (psi > 0.60) with high detection probability (0.81). Detection probability was often related to local habitat variables current velocity, depth, or substrate size. Important environmental variables for crayfish occupancy were species dependent but were mainly landscape variables such as stream order, geology, slope, topography, and land use. Landscape variables strongly influenced crayfish occupancy and should be considered in future studies and conservation plans. © 2017 Springer International Publishing Switzerland (outside the USA)

Bodinof C.M.,University of Missouri | Beringer J.,Resource Science Center | Wanner M.D.,Saint Louis Zoological Park | Schuette C.D.,Saint Louis Zoological Park | And 2 more authors.
Copeia | Year: 2012

We used radiotelemetry and recapture to monitor survival and body condition of 36 captive-reared Ozark Hellbenders (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis bishopi) released at two sites on the North Fork of the White River, Missouri, from May 2008 to August 2009. At the end of our study 16 salamanders were alive, 13 had died, and the fate of seven could not be determined. Captive-reared hellbenders released at a site with densely arranged boulders exhibited approximately 1.5-fold higher annual survival (0.7467; daily survival = 0.9992 ± 0.0004 95% CI) than hellbenders released at a site where boulders were patchily distributed (0.4816; daily survival = 0.9980 ± 0.0007 95% CI). When compared to log-transformed lengthmass relationships developed for wild hellbenders from the same river in the 1970s, mean body condition of hellbenders at the patchy boulder site was about average at the end of the study (mean residual distance = -0.0273 ± 0.0234 SE, n = 7; range = -0.13750.0486), while mean body condition of hellbenders at the dense boulder site was above average (mean residual distance = 0.0423 ± 0.0402 SE; n = 8; range = -0.03740.1088). In addition to lower survivorship and body condition, a greater proportion of hellbenders at the patchy site accrued physical abnormalities (6 of 13 vs. 2 of 14), carried leech parasites (9 of 16 vs. 4 of 14), and carried the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (3 of 11 vs. 1 of 13). A 'site only' model of survival was most supported, though additional supported models suggested increased mass at release may have increased daily survivorship. While more work is needed to determine the impact of translocation on long-term population dynamics of Ozark Hellbenders, our study demonstrated that about half of a translocated population of captive-reared hellbenders can survive while maintaining or increasing in body condition during their first year post-release, given release sites are well selected. © 2012 by the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists.

Crowhurst R.S.,Resource Science Center | Crowhurst R.S.,Oregon State University | Faries K.M.,University of Missouri | Collantes J.,Resource Science Center | And 2 more authors.
Conservation Genetics | Year: 2011

The hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis) is an obligately aquatic salamander that is in decline due to habitat loss and disease. Two subspecies of hellbender have been described based on morphological characteristics: C. a. alleganiensis (eastern subspecies) and C. a. bishopi (Ozark hellbender). Current conservation strategies include captive propagation for restorative releases even though information regarding the current levels of genetic variability and structure within populations is not sufficient to effectively plan for conservation of the genetic diversity of the species. To investigate patterns of population structure in the hellbender, we genotyped 276 hellbenders from eight Missouri River drainages, representing both subspecies. Our results showed low levels of within-drainage diversity but strong population structure among rivers, and three distinct genetic clusters. FST values ranged from 0.00 to 0.61 and averaged 0.40. Our results confirmed previous reports that C. a. bishopi and C. a. alleganiensis are genetically distinct, but also revealed an equidistant relationship between two groups within C. a. bishopi and all populations of C. a. alleganiensis. Current subspecies delineations do not accurately incorporate genetic structure, and for conservation purposes, these three groups should be considered evolutionarily significant units. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Bodinof C.M.,University of Missouri | Beringer J.,Resource Science Center | Millspaugh J.J.,University of Missouri
Diseases of Aquatic Organisms | Year: 2011

The pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) was recently detected in Missouri hellbender Cryptobranchus alleganiensis populations that have declined precipitously for unclear reasons. The objective of this study was to determine whether Bd occurred historically in Missouri hellbender populations or is a relatively novel occurrence. Epidermal tissue was removed from 216 archived hellbenders collected from 7 Missouri streams between 1896 and 1994. Histological techniques and an immunoperoxidase stain were used to confirm historic occurrence of Bd infection in hellbenders from the North Fork of the White (1969, 1973, 1975), Meramec (1975, 1986), Big Piney (1986), and Current rivers (1988). Bd was not detected in hellbenders from the Niangua, Gasconade or Eleven Point rivers. The study detected no evidence for endemism of Bd in Missouri hellbender populations prior to 1969, despite the fact that nearly one third of the hellbenders sampled were collected earlier. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that Bd is a non-endemic pathogen in North America that was introduced in the second half of the twentieth century. © Inter-Research 2011.

Puckett E.E.,University of Missouri | Kristensen T.V.,University of Arkansas | Wilton C.M.,Mississippi State University | Lyda S.B.,Oklahoma State University | And 7 more authors.
Molecular Ecology | Year: 2014

Bottlenecks, founder events, and genetic drift often result in decreased genetic diversity and increased population differentiation. These events may follow abundance declines due to natural or anthropogenic perturbations, where translocations may be an effective conservation strategy to increase population size. American black bears (Ursus americanus) were nearly extirpated from the Central Interior Highlands, USA by 1920. In an effort to restore bears, 254 individuals were translocated from Minnesota, USA, and Manitoba, Canada, into the Ouachita and Ozark Mountains from 1958 to 1968. Using 15 microsatellites and mitochondrial haplotypes, we observed contemporary genetic diversity and differentiation between the source and supplemented populations. We inferred four genetic clusters: Source, Ouachitas, Ozarks, and a cluster in Missouri where no individuals were translocated. Coalescent models using approximate Bayesian computation identified an admixture model as having the highest posterior probability (0.942) over models where the translocation was unsuccessful or acted as a founder event. Nuclear genetic diversity was highest in the source (AR = 9.11) and significantly lower in the translocated populations (AR = 7.07-7.34; P = 0.004). The Missouri cluster had the lowest genetic diversity (AR = 5.48) and served as a natural experiment showing the utility of translocations to increase genetic diversity following demographic bottlenecks. Differentiation was greater between the two admixed populations than either compared to the source, suggesting that genetic drift acted strongly over the eight generations since the translocation. The Ouachitas and Missouri were previously hypothesized to be remnant lineages. We observed a pretranslocation remnant signature in Missouri but not in the Ouachitas. © Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

Sunde M.G.,University of Missouri | He H.S.,University of Missouri | Zhou B.,University of Missouri | Hubbart J.A.,University of Missouri | Spicci A.,Resource Science Center
Landscape and Urban Planning | Year: 2014

Most contemporary urban growth and land cover change models use a binary classification system (e.g. urban/non-urban) to describe urbanized areas. While some models do incorporate continuous urban development indices, they do not specifically provide quantitative information describing the amount of impervious surface within each prediction unit (e.g. pixel or parcel). Such information is essential when characterizing different urban growth patterns, such as high- or low-density development. Here, we present the Imperviousness Change Analysis Tool (I-CAT), which simulates urban growth in terms of pixel-based imperviousness. I-CAT uses common drivers of urban growth (e.g. elevation, slope, distance to water, road networks, and urban centers), along with historic impervious surface area growth trends, to predict the future extent of impervious surface area. A multi-criteria evaluation (MCE) approach is used to determine the respective influence (i.e. weight) of each driver of urban growth. In this study, I-CAT was applied to Jackson County, Missouri. Prediction accuracy, which was assessed by the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve method, ranged from 72 to 74 area under curve (AUC). The results demonstrated that I-CAT is an effective tool for providing quantitative estimates of future impervious surface growth. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Mowry R.A.,University of Missouri | Schneider T.M.,Kansas State University | Latch E.K.,University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee | Gompper M.E.,University of Missouri | And 2 more authors.
Animal Conservation | Year: 2015

Reintroduction is an effective tool for restoring endangered populations. There is increasing concern, however, that demographic restoration may not equate with genetic restoration. We examine the demographic-genetic contrast in the context of one of the world's most successful carnivore population restorations. Beginning in 1982, a total of 835 river otters Lontra canadensis were reintroduced to Missouri, USA, more than 50 years after extirpation. Most otters were translocated from Louisiana, USA, and released at 43 sites across the state. An estimated population of 11000-18000 otters existed by 2000, and density estimates for Missouri otters are now similar to those reported for populations across the continent, indicating demographic recovery. We used microsatellite genotyping and mitochondrial sequence analysis of DNA extracted from fecal samples from eight southern Missouri rivers, in conjunction with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analyses from several native Louisiana otter populations, to evaluate the genetic diversity and population structure of otters within Missouri as compared with Louisiana. The Missouri population showed moderate to high heterozygosity and allelic diversity, similar to that of the source populations, but low mtDNA haplotype diversity. We detected five distinct genetic clusters distributed throughout the eight rivers, with no evidence of isolation by distance. These data collectively suggest that 30 years after restoration efforts commenced, Missouri river otters have retained genetic diversity levels similar to those of the source populations, but that genetic structure has not reached an equilibrium between migration and genetic drift. Thus, the Missouri otter population has made a robust recovery despite retaining the genetic signature of the reintroduction. © 2014 The Zoological Society of London.

Dekar M.P.,University of Arkansas | Dekar M.P.,Baylor University | Magoulick D.D.,U.S. Geological Survey | Beringer J.,Resource Science Center
Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences | Year: 2010

River otters (Lontra canadensis) are important predators in aquatic ecosystems, but few studies quantify their prey consumption. We trapped crayfish monthly as an index of availability and collected otter scat for diet analysis in the Ozark Mountains of northwestern Arkansas, USA. We measured otter daily energy expenditure (DEE) with the doubly labeled water method to develop a bioenergetics model for estimating monthly prey consumption. Meek's crayfish (Orconectes meeki) catch-per-unit-effort was positively related to stream temperature, indicating that crayfish were more available during warmer months. The percentage frequency of occurrence for crayfish in scat samples peaked at 85.0% in summer and was lowest (42.3%) in winter. In contrast, the percentage occurrence of fish was 13.3% in summer and 57.7% in winter. Estimates of DEE averaged 4738 kJ day-1 for an otter with a body mass of 7842 g. Total biomass consumption ranged from 35079 to 52653 g·month-1 (wet mass), corresponding to a high proportion of fish and crayfish in the diet, respectively. Otter consumption represents a large fraction of prey production, indicating potentially strong effects of otters on trophic dynamics in stream ecosystems.

Imhoff E.M.,Resource Science Center | Moore M.J.,Resource Science Center | DiStefano R.J.,Resource Science Center
Aquatic Invasions | Year: 2012

The Eleven Point River drainage in the Ozarks ecoregion of North America contains the largest known populations of and critical habitat for the globally imperiled coldwater crayfish (Orconectes eupunctus). We present here the discovery of an introduced population of alien ringed crayfish (Orconectes neglectus neglectus) in Jolliff Spring Branch in the upper reaches of the drainage. Sampling was conducted at eight sites throughout the tributary to determine the extent of the alien species' range in the stream. Orconectes n. neglectus were found at four sites extending along 3.4 km of stream, with reproducing populations confirmed at two upstream sites, and few individuals found at two others. This invasion represents a threat to O. eupunctus, which occurs a few kilometers further downstream in the drainage and has been recorded from only the lower reaches of Barren Fork and throughout the mainstem Eleven Point River. Introduced O. neglectus were previously associated with localized extirpation of O. eupunctus in another drainage. Study results warrant monitoring of the invasion and possible reassessment of the conservation status for O. eupunctus. © 2012 The Author(s).

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