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Le Touquet – Paris-Plage, France

The French elite educational system is characterized by a Europe-wide incomparable rigor in the selection of students admitted to the elite colleges, the so-called grandes écoles. At the same time, it is marked by strong social closure. During the last decade in particular, the field of higher education and research in France has been characterized by transformations that put into question the system of elite education, strongly anchored in a national logic, and its traditional admission procedures (concours). The authors first describe these processes of transformation in general and then present the initial results of a research project on the processes of internationalization at the Écoles normales supérieures and their effects on the selection procedures from the perspective of college lecturers. Source

Dickin S.K.,McMaster University | Dickin S.K.,Environment Canada | Schuster-Wallace C.J.,Environment Canada | Qadir M.,Environment Canada | Pizzacalla K.,science Po
Environmental Health Perspectives | Year: 2016

Background: Wastewater is increasingly being used in the agricultural sector to cope with the depletion of freshwater resources as well as water stress linked to changing climate conditions. As wastewater irrigation expands, research focusing on the human health risks is critical because exposure to a range of contaminants must be weighed with the benefits to food security, nutrition and livelihoods. oBjectives: The goal of this paper was to review research examining health risks and exposure pathways associated with wastewater irrigation to identify research trends and gaps. Methods: We conducted a review of the literature and identified a total of 126 studies published from 1995 to 2013. Findings were summarized based on several themes including types of exposure pathways, wastewater contaminants, methodological approaches and the geographical distribution of research. results: Only 23 studies used epidemiological methods, while most research applied alternative methods to estimate risk, such as quantitative risk assessment models or comparisons of crop contamination to established guidelines for wastewater reuse. A geographic breakdown demonstrated a focus on microbiological contaminants in specific regions such as sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia, despite growing chemical risks associated with rapid urbanization and industrialization that may change the types and distribution of wastewater contaminants. conclusions: To provide a more comprehensive understanding of the health risks of wastewater use in agriculture, future research should consider multiple exposure routes, long-term health implications, and increase the range of contaminants studied, particularly in regions heavily dependent on wastewater irrigation. © 2016, Public Health Services, US Dept of Health and Human Services. All rights reserved. Source

November V.,Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne | Camacho-Hubner E.,Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne | Latour B.,science Po
Environment and Planning D: Society and Space | Year: 2010

Relying on the fecund interface of three fields-studies in science, risk geography, and knowledge management-this paper notes first that the lack of understanding of the relationships between maps and territory and risks is an unfortunate consequence of the way the mapping impulse has been interpreted during the modernist period. Then, taking into account the advent of digital navigation, the paper discusses a very different interpretation of the mapping enterprise that allows a mimetic use of maps to be distinguished from a navigational one. Consequently, we suggest maps should be considered as dashboards of a calculation interface that allows one to pinpoint successive signposts while moving through the world, the famous multiverse of William James. This distinction, we argue, might, on the one hand, help geography to grasp the very idea of risks and, on the other, help to free geography from its fascination with the base map by allowing a whole set of new features, such as anticipation, participation, reflexivity, and feedback, now being included in the navigational definition of maps. © 2010 Pion Ltd and its Licensors. Source

Sartor O.,European Energy and Climate Policy | Palliere C.,science Po | Lecourt S.,University of Paris Dauphine
Climate Policy | Year: 2014

Phase 3 of the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS; 2013-2020) sees the introduction of new rules governing the free allocations of emissions allowances given to energy-intensive industries. In contrast to Phases 1 and 2, allocations will be based on historical production multiplied by best available emissions technology benchmarks. This article exploits an original database to provide a first analysis of the distributional and economic efficiency implications of the new rules. It is shown empirically that the new allocation rules reduce the scope for windfall gains by EU ETS firms while also effectively mitigating carbon leakage risks, even assuming optimistic forecasts of Phase 3 carbon prices. The example of the cement sector is used to show that benchmarking significantly improves the harmonization of the levels of free allocations to competing firms throughout the EU compared to Phase 2. However, it is also found that the use of ex ante output levels to determine allocations still leaves considerable scope for windfall gains and possible distortions of the internal market. © 2014 © 2014 Taylor & Francis. Source

Weill S.,science Po | Weill S.,Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies
Journal of Conflict and Security Law | Year: 2016

This article examines the potential role of national courts in reducing the 'security gap' in the context of armed conflicts. Judges in democratic States assume different roles. They may variously serve as a legitimating agent of the State; avoid exercising jurisdiction for extra-legal considerations; defer to other branches of the government; enforce the law in line with the rule of law ideal; or develop the law and introduce forms of ethical judgment that go beyond positive application of the law. Identifying the various roles assumed by national judiciaries, their institutional limits and interactions with the executive offers a useful tool for assessing their potential role in advancing human security. In relation to the concept of human security, it has been suggested that the distinction between internal and external notions of security is becoming increasingly blurred, whereby 'internal' implies judicial guarantees and human rights based security and 'external' implieswar-based security. In this context, the changing roles of national courts in situations of armed conflict that are explored in the article could be understood as a method for strengthening human security. The analysis of Israeli and US cases involving targeted killings suggests that while national courts have been largely reluctant to limit government action and have tended to apply international law in a selectivemanner, they have nonetheless become increasingly willing to review armed conflict cases, including State action beyond its territorial borders. © Oxford University Press 2015. Source

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