Sillé-le-Guillaume, France
Sillé-le-Guillaume, France

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The rapid rise in the number of coordinator posts offers nurses new career and training opportunities. It could also favour a rise in skill levels within the profession and help to transform relations between health care professionals. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.


Weill S.,science Po | Weill S.,Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies
Journal of Conflict and Security Law | Year: 2016

This article examines the potential role of national courts in reducing the 'security gap' in the context of armed conflicts. Judges in democratic States assume different roles. They may variously serve as a legitimating agent of the State; avoid exercising jurisdiction for extra-legal considerations; defer to other branches of the government; enforce the law in line with the rule of law ideal; or develop the law and introduce forms of ethical judgment that go beyond positive application of the law. Identifying the various roles assumed by national judiciaries, their institutional limits and interactions with the executive offers a useful tool for assessing their potential role in advancing human security. In relation to the concept of human security, it has been suggested that the distinction between internal and external notions of security is becoming increasingly blurred, whereby 'internal' implies judicial guarantees and human rights based security and 'external' implieswar-based security. In this context, the changing roles of national courts in situations of armed conflict that are explored in the article could be understood as a method for strengthening human security. The analysis of Israeli and US cases involving targeted killings suggests that while national courts have been largely reluctant to limit government action and have tended to apply international law in a selectivemanner, they have nonetheless become increasingly willing to review armed conflict cases, including State action beyond its territorial borders. © Oxford University Press 2015.


Nay O.,Paris-Sorbonne University | Bejean S.,University of Burgundy | Benamouzig D.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Bergeron H.,French National Center for Scientific Research | And 3 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2016

Since 1945, the provision of health care in France has been grounded in a social conception promoting universalism and equality. The French health-care system is based on compulsory social insurance funded by social contributions, co-administered by workers' and employers' organisations under State control and driven by highly redistributive financial transfers. This system is described frequently as the French model. In this paper, the first in The Lancet's Series on France, we challenge conventional wisdom about health care in France. First, we focus on policy and institutional transformations that have affected deeply the governance of health care over past decades. We argue that the health system rests on a diversity of institutions, policy mechanisms, and health actors, while its governance has been marked by the reinforcement of national regulation under the aegis of the State. Second, we suggest the redistributive mechanisms of the health insurance system are impeded by social inequalities in health, which remain major hindrances to achieving objectives of justice and solidarity associated with the conception of health care in France. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.


Jacomy M.,science Po | Venturini T.,science Po | Heymann S.,Gephi Consortium | Heymann S.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Bastian M.,Gephi Consortium
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Gephi is a network visualization software used in various disciplines (social network analysis, biology, genomics...). One of its key features is the ability to display the spatialization process, aiming at transforming the network into a map, and ForceAtlas2 is its default layout algorithm. The latter is developed by the Gephi team as an all-around solution to Gephi users' typical networks (scale-free, 10 to 10,000 nodes). We present here for the first time its functioning and settings. ForceAtlas2 is a force-directed layout close to other algorithms used for network spatialization. We do not claim a theoretical advance but an attempt to integrate different techniques such as the Barnes Hut simulation, degree-dependent repulsive force, and local and global adaptive temperatures. It is designed for the Gephi user experience (it is a continuous algorithm), and we explain which constraints it implies. The algorithm benefits from much feedback and is developed in order to provide many possibilities through its settings. We lay out its complete functioning for the users who need a precise understanding of its behaviour, from the formulas to graphic illustration of the result. We propose a benchmark for our compromise between performance and quality. We also explain why we integrated its various features and discuss our design choices. © 2014 Jacomy et al.


The French elite educational system is characterized by a Europe-wide incomparable rigor in the selection of students admitted to the elite colleges, the so-called grandes écoles. At the same time, it is marked by strong social closure. During the last decade in particular, the field of higher education and research in France has been characterized by transformations that put into question the system of elite education, strongly anchored in a national logic, and its traditional admission procedures (concours). The authors first describe these processes of transformation in general and then present the initial results of a research project on the processes of internationalization at the Écoles normales supérieures and their effects on the selection procedures from the perspective of college lecturers.


Sartor O.,European Energy and Climate Policy | Palliere C.,science Po | Lecourt S.,University of Paris Dauphine
Climate Policy | Year: 2014

Phase 3 of the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS; 2013-2020) sees the introduction of new rules governing the free allocations of emissions allowances given to energy-intensive industries. In contrast to Phases 1 and 2, allocations will be based on historical production multiplied by best available emissions technology benchmarks. This article exploits an original database to provide a first analysis of the distributional and economic efficiency implications of the new rules. It is shown empirically that the new allocation rules reduce the scope for windfall gains by EU ETS firms while also effectively mitigating carbon leakage risks, even assuming optimistic forecasts of Phase 3 carbon prices. The example of the cement sector is used to show that benchmarking significantly improves the harmonization of the levels of free allocations to competing firms throughout the EU compared to Phase 2. However, it is also found that the use of ex ante output levels to determine allocations still leaves considerable scope for windfall gains and possible distortions of the internal market. © 2014 © 2014 Taylor & Francis.


November V.,Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne | Camacho-Hubner E.,Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne | Latour B.,science Po
Environment and Planning D: Society and Space | Year: 2010

Relying on the fecund interface of three fields-studies in science, risk geography, and knowledge management-this paper notes first that the lack of understanding of the relationships between maps and territory and risks is an unfortunate consequence of the way the mapping impulse has been interpreted during the modernist period. Then, taking into account the advent of digital navigation, the paper discusses a very different interpretation of the mapping enterprise that allows a mimetic use of maps to be distinguished from a navigational one. Consequently, we suggest maps should be considered as dashboards of a calculation interface that allows one to pinpoint successive signposts while moving through the world, the famous multiverse of William James. This distinction, we argue, might, on the one hand, help geography to grasp the very idea of risks and, on the other, help to free geography from its fascination with the base map by allowing a whole set of new features, such as anticipation, participation, reflexivity, and feedback, now being included in the navigational definition of maps. © 2010 Pion Ltd and its Licensors.


To what extent do we need a 'second-wave' of writing on depoliticisation to correct the biases of the first and thereby to improve our capacity to gain analytical traction on the dynamic interplay between politicising and depoliticising tendencies in contemporary liberal democracies? In this article I welcome the debate this special issue has opened, but defend the first wave against its critics. More specifically, I argue that the first wave literature provides ample analytical and theoretical resources to capture the dynamic interplay between depoliticising tendencies and politicising or repoliticising counter-tendencies which its critics rightly place at centre stage. Indeed, I go further, suggesting that the more empirical contributions of the special issue, while bringing a series of new and important insights to the analysis of politicisation-depoliticisation dynamics, in fact do so by drawing extensively on first wave depoliticisation theory. Such work is very necessary and advances significantly our understanding of depoliticising, but it extends rather than challenges first wave perspectives and is ultimately better characterised as 'second generation' rather than 'second wave'. © Policy Press 2014.


Kerouedan D.,science Po
Field Actions Science Report | Year: 2012

Africa is the continent where the social and health situation is of greatest concern, and where progress on the Millennium Development Goals is the slowest. Access to global assistance for health is complex, as it is channeled through new funding mechanisms: global public-private partnerships or "innovative" financing. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that the effectiveness of this aid, which is growing in volume, depends on a more equitable distribution between different countries on the same continent, or among patients with different pathologies, on financial resources as well as technical expertise, and on a evidence-based allocation of funding, using objective criteria such as epidemiological data, the efficacy of the chosen treatments, the population profile, the effectiveness and efficiency of selected interventions, etc. It is our opinion that food insecurity, including in urban areas, and unequal access to global health aid-combined with Africa's unprecedented demographic growth and with the global financial and economic crisis effects-threaten the African continent political stability, particularly in the French-speaking Africa. To avoid the situation deteriorating still further, France and Europe, who have a historic responsibility towards this part of the world, must ensure that the human and financial resources allocated to global initiatives- channels these institutions favour to the detriment of bilateral aid-also benefit the most deprived populations living in French-speaking African countries. © Author(s) 2012.


Power S.,University of Cardiff | Brown P.,University of Cardiff | Allouch A.,science Po | Tholen G.,University of Oxford
British Journal of Sociology | Year: 2013

There is increasing interest in the emergence of a 'global middle class' in which high achieving young graduates increasingly look to develop careers that transcend national boundaries. This paper explores this issue through comparing and contrasting the aspirations and orientations of two 'elite' cohorts of graduates. Interviews with students at the University of Oxford, England, and Sciences-Po, France, reveal very different ambitions and allegiances. Our Oxford respondents portray their futures as projects of self-fulfilment as they build portfolio careers by moving from job to job and from country to country with limited social allegiances - epitomizing the nomadic worker of the transnational elite. Our Parisian respondents, on the other hand, display strong allegiances to the nation, state and civic duty. Their projects of the self involve reconciling their personal aspirations with strong allegiances to France. The paper concludes by discussing the significance of these differences. It argues that the enduring role of education in the formation of national identities should not be overlooked and that more detailed research is needed on the contextual specifity of transnationalism and the (re)production of elites. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2013.

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