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Sant'Ambrogio di Torino, Italy

Numico G.,Science Oncologia | Silvestris N.,Medical and Experimental Oncology Unit | Russi E.G.,Science Radioterapia Oncologica
Frontiers in Bioscience - Scholar | Year: 2011

Initial research showed that EGFR targeting through known single agents, both monoclonal antibodies and small-molecule tyrosine-kinase inhibitors, applied to patients with refractory head and neck cancer, resulted in low response rates and short median survival times. However, the combination of Cetuximab with radiotherapy in patients with locally advanced disease and with a combination of platinum and fluorouracil in the setting of relapsed and/or metastatic disease resulted in a sharp improvement compared to standard therapy. Cetuximab entered clinical practice in both indications. Other anti- EGFR drugs, although showing activity, have not demonstrated an improvement of the results of standard therapy. Unfortunately, no molecular parameter emerged as a useful tool in predicting activity, thus impairing clinical applications. Only skin rash was repeatedly shown to be related with drug activity. Although generally well tolerated, class and drug specific toxicities can be troublesome and require knowledge and expertise for an optimal management. Further research is needed in order to find the best ways of integrating the anti-EGFR strategy with current standards of care.

Ravelli A.,U.O. Ematologia e CTMO | Reuben J.M.,University of Houston | Lanza F.,U.O. Ematologia e CTMO | Anfossi S.,University of Houston | And 9 more authors.
Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy | Year: 2015

Because its original use as a treatment for hematologic disease, more recently immunotherapy has emerged as a novel effective therapeutic strategy for solid malignancies, such as melanoma and prostate carcinoma. For breast carcinoma, an immunologic therapeutic approach has not been well evaluated, even though there is evidence to suggest it would be a successful novel strategy, especially taking into account the high mortality rate of the most aggressive variants of this heterogeneous disease. Here, we briefly describe the most recently awarded immune-based therapies with a consolidated or potential implication for the treatment of solid malignancies. We focus on immune checkpoints and on the clinical potential of their abrogation, with a further overview of novel vaccine-based approaches and the most relevant immunotherapeutic techniques. We aim to provide an exhaustive review of the most promising immune-therapeutic agents that may have implications for breast cancer treatment. © 2014 Informa UK, Ltd.

Miglietta L.,Science Oncologia Medica A | Morabito F.,Unita di Emato Oncologia | Provinciali N.,Divisione di Oncologia Medica | Canobbio L.,Divisione di Oncologia Medica | And 6 more authors.
European Journal of Surgical Oncology | Year: 2013

Background Ki-67 expression has gained attention as a breast cancer prognostic factor, however its significance in the remaining malignant cells after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) has been rarely examined. This investigation, extension and analysis of a previously reported cohort of patients, evaluates the significance of Ki-67 and estrogen receptor (ER) expression after NAC in LABC (locally advanced breast cancer). Patients and methods clinical stage, tumor size, clinical and pathological lymph node involvement, Ki-67, ER, progesterone receptor (PgR), HER2 expression, grading and clinical response were evaluated before and after NAC in 110 patients with LABC. Ki-67 expression was assessed both in pre and post-therapy histological samples, using >15% positive cells as cut-off value to distinguish high from low Ki-67 expressing tumors. Results six patients (5.45%) attained pCR after NAC. A significant relationship between elevated post-CT Ki-67 and ER expression was showed at Cox multivariate analysis of disease free survival (DFS). On univariate analysis high post-chemotherapy Ki-67 and ER status were associated with worse survival; at multivariate model included these results were confirmed. Based on these two parameters, a prognostic model identified two different groups: low risk (low postchemotherapy Ki-67 and ER positive, or either high post-chemotherapy Ki-67 or ER negative), and high risk (high post-chemotherapy Ki-67 and ER negative). The low risk group showed a good prognosis (median OS still not reached), while the high risk group had a worse OS (median 41 months). Conclusions Ki-67 value after NAC and ER status could predict a worse prognosis among LABC patients treated with NAC. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Grosso F.,Science Oncologia | D'Incalci M.,Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research | Cartoafa M.,PharmaMar | Nieto A.,PharmaMar | And 8 more authors.
Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology | Year: 2012

Purpose: This analysis determined the incidence of serious rhabdomyolysis events reported during trabectedin treatment since the first phase I clinical trial in April 1996 up to September 2010. Methods: Search was done in the Yondelis® Pharmacovigilance and Clinical Trials databases using a list of terms according to the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA, v. 13.1), followed by a medical review of all cases retrieved. Total estimated sample was 10,841 patients: 2,789 from clinical trials; 3,926 from compassionate use programs; and 4,126 treated in the marketplace. Two groups were identified: (1) rhabdomyolysis and (2) clinically relevant creatine phosphokinase (CPK) increases without acute renal failure (ARF). Descriptive analysis included demographic, clinical/laboratory data, and contributing/confounding factors. Potential predictive factors were evaluated by multivariate stepwise logistic regression analysis. Possible changes of pharmacokinetics (PK) in patients with rhabdomyolysis were explored using a population PK model. Results: The global incidence of rhabdomyolysis was 0.7 %, and most cases occurred in Cycle 2 of treatment. The incidence of fatal cases was 0.3 %. None of the variables evaluated to detect potential risk factors of rhabdomyolysis were predictive. Additionally, CPK increases (without ARF) were detected in 0.4 % of patients as an incidental finding with good prognosis. Conclusions: Rhabdomyolysis is an uncommon event during trabectedin treatment. Multivariate analyses did not show any potential factor that could be predictive or represent a significantly higher risk of developing rhabdomyolysis. Nevertheless, close patient monitoring and adherence to drug administration guidelines may help to limit the incidence of this event. © The Author(s) 2012.

Pedrazzoli P.,Science Oncologia | Comoli P.,Pediatric Hematology Oncology | Montagna D.,University of Pavia | Demirer T.,Uludag University
Bone Marrow Transplantation | Year: 2012

Among the novel biological therapeutics that will increase our ability to cure human cancer in years to come, adoptive cellular therapy is one of the most promising approaches. Although this is a complex and challenging field, there have been major advances in basic and translational research resulting in clinical trial activity that is now beginning to confirm this promise. The results obtained with tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes therapy for melanoma, and virus-specific CTLs for EBV-associated malignancies are encouraging in terms of both ability to obtain clinical benefit and limited toxicity profile. In both settings, objective responses were obtained in at least 50% of treated patients. However, improvements to the clinical protocols, in terms of better patient selection and timing of administration, as well as cell product quality and availability, are clearly necessary to further ameliorate outcome, and logistical solutions are warranted to extend T-cell therapy beyond academic centers. In particular, there is a need to simplify cell production, in order to decrease costs and ease preparation. Promising implementations are underway, including harnessing the therapeutic potential of T cells transduced with TCRs directed against shared tumor antigens, and delineating strategies aimed at targeting immune evasion mechanisms exerted by tumor cells. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

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