Cagliari, Italy
Cagliari, Italy

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Peterlongo P.,The FIRC Institute of Molecular Oncology | Peterlongo P.,Fondazione IRCCS Instituto Nazionale dei Tumori | Catucci I.,The FIRC Institute of Molecular Oncology | Catucci I.,Fondazione IRCCS Instituto Nazionale dei Tumori | And 122 more authors.
Human Molecular Genetics | Year: 2015

Numerous genetic factors that influence breast cancer risk are known. However, approximately two-thirds of the overall familial risk remain unexplained. To determine whether some of the missing heritability is due to rare variants conferring high to moderate risk, we tested for an association between the c.5791C>T nonsense mutation (p. Arg1931*; rs144567652) in exon 22 of FANCM gene and breast cancer. An analysis of genotyping data from 8635 familial breast cancer cases and 6625 controls from different countries yielded an association between the c.5791C>T mutation and breast cancer risk [odds ratio (OR) = 3.93 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.28-12.11; P = 0.017)]. Moreover, we performed two meta-analyses of studies from countries with carriers in both cases and controls and of all available data. These analyses showed breast cancer associations with OR = 3.67 (95% CI = 1.04-12.87; P = 0.043) and OR = 3.33 (95% CI = 1.09-13.62; P = 0.032), respectively. Based on information theory-based prediction, we established that the mutation caused an out-of-frame deletion of exon 22, due to the creation of a binding site for the pre-mRNA processing protein hnRNP A1. Furthermore, genetic complementation analyses showed that the mutation influenced the DNA repair activity of the FANCM protein. In summary, we provide evidence for the first time showing that the common p. Arg1931* loss-of-function variant in FANCM is a risk factor for familial breast cancer. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

Cagnoli C.,University of Turin | Stevanin G.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Stevanin G.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Stevanin G.,Pitie Salpetriere Hospital | And 28 more authors.
Human Mutation | Year: 2010

Spinocerebellar ataxia type 28 is an autosomal dominant form of cerebellar ataxia (ADCA) caused by mutations in AFG3L2, a gene that encodes a subunit of the mitochondrial m-AAA protease. We screened 366 primarily Caucasian ADCA families, negative for the most common triplet expansions, for point mutations in AFG3L2 using DHPLC. Whole-gene deletions were excluded in 300 of the patients, and duplications were excluded in 129 patients. We found six missense mutations in nine unrelated index cases (9/366, 2.6%): c.1961C>T (p.Thr654Ile) in exon 15, c.1996A>G (p.Met666Val), c.1997T>G (p.Met666Arg), c.1997T>C (p.Met666Thr), c.2011G>A (p.Gly671Arg), and c.2012G>A (p.Gly671Glu) in exon 16. All mutated amino acids were located in the C-terminal proteolytic domain. In available cases, we demonstrated the mutations segregated with the disease. Mutated amino acids are highly conserved, and bioinformatic analysis indicates the substitutions are likely deleterious. This investigation demonstrates that SCA28 accounts for ~3% of ADCA Caucasian cases negative for triplet expansions and, in extenso, to ~1.5% of all ADCA. We further confirm both the involvement of AFG3L2 gene in SCA28 and the presence of a mutational hotspot in exons 15-16. Screening for SCA28, is warranted in patients who test negative for more common SCAs and present with a slowly progressive cerebellar ataxia accompanied by oculomotor signs. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Borelli I.,University of Turin | Barberis M.A.,SCDU Genetica Medica | Spina F.,Science Medical Genetics | Cavalchini G.C.C.,SCDU Genetica Medica | And 8 more authors.
European Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2013

Lynch syndrome is an autosomal-dominant hereditary condition predisposing to the development of specific cancers, because of germline mutations in the DNA-mismatch repair (MMR) genes. Large genomic deletions represent a significant fraction of germline mutations, particularly among the MSH2 gene, in which they account for 20% of the mutational spectrum. In this study we analyzed 13 Italian families carrying MSH2 exon 8 deletions, 10 of which of ascertained Sardinian origin. The overrepresentation of Sardinians was unexpected, as families from Sardinia account for a small quota of MMR genes mutation tests performed in our laboratory. The hypothesis that such a result is owing to founder effects in Sardinia was tested by breakpoint junctions sequencing and haplotype analyses. Overall, five different exon eight deletions were identified, two of which recurrent in families, all apparently unrelated, of Sardinian origin (one in eight families, one in two families). The c.1277-1180-1386+2226del3516insCATTCTCTTTGAAAA deletion shares the same haplotype between all families and appears so far restricted to the population of South-West Sardinia, showing the typical features of a founder effect. The three non-Sardinian families showed three different breakpoint junctions and haplotypes, suggesting independent mutational events. This work has useful implications in genetic testing for Lynch syndrome. We developed a quick test for each of the identified deletions: this can be particularly useful in families of Sardinian origin, in which MSH2 exon 8 deletions may represent 50% of the overall mutational spectrum of the four MMR genes causing Lynch syndrome. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

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